Veronica Rodrigues images of fruitfly olfactory recceptor - Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

Smell,Taste, Pheromone, Artificial Nose Research 

Smell, touch, and taste are growing to major research focuses. 
Developers are seeking to create new technologies which connect with these senses

Links to research on Smell,Taste, Pheromone, Artificial Nose

Explanation of Smell/Taste Biology Artificial Nose Technology

Pheromone Research

Pheromones are molecular signals animals send each other to indicate sexual state, agression, identity, and other psychological states.  In some ways pheromones are similar to odors but may not be handled by the same physiological mechanisms.  The word pheromone comes from the Greek words Pheran (to  transfer) and Horman (to excite)  Researchers have shown that the human VNO (Vomeronasal organ)  is connected directly to the limbic system, that part of the brain that is responsible for exploration, flight or fight, for identifying with the environment and reacting to it. The limbic system is also responsible for controlling emotional and behavioral patterns. Major histocompatibility complex (MCH) genes are among the most diverse of all genes, constituting, in essence, a genetic signature of the individual. MHC genes help the body to recognize its own healthy cells, to identify invading pathogens and to reject foreign tissues and may transfer signals via pheromones.
(modified from John Morgenthale   The Pheromone Revolution)

 Research/Intros on Pheromones

Products using pheromones Pheromone Books & Articles

Research on Artificial Noses (academic and commercial)

Artificial Noses use a variety of experimental technologies to sense and interpret molecules in the air usually associated with odors.  Typically a device determines a profile of molecules and uses sophisticated analysis algorithms. to match it against pre-stored templates associated with particular odors.  For example,At the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Nathan Lewis is building on the idea of conductive polymers by adding carbon black (in essence, soot) to the polymer. This provides the necessary variety of response because the task of conducting the electricity is taken over by the carbon black. The resistance of a detector changes as the polymer swells in response to its reaction with the odour molecules and thus alters the connections between the particles of carbon black. The University of Illinois project uses spectroscopic analysis of the gas samples.  Other gas sensors use these technologies: metal oxide, conducting polymer, acoustic wave (bulk and surface), field-effect transisitors, electrochemical, pelistors and fibre-optic.

Scent Generation Products & Research


Smell Taste Disorders

Lists of Links, Organizations, Databases, and Journals


Other Smell/ Taste Resources

Artist/CulturalInvestigations of Smell,Taste

Real-Aroma - interent smell interface
Sonya Rapoport - Smell your Desiiny
Wilson - List of Artists Experimenting with Biology
Uncommon Scenses: Interational Conference of the Senses
- This page created by StephenWilson, Professor Conceptual/Information Arts, SFSU
- More information about the Conceptual / Information Arts program
- This page is part of a section whose master is at

**Note this section is being generated as part of new book Information Arts:Intersections of Art, Science and Technology by Stephen Wilson (Publishedby MIT Pess, 2001).  The page is in state of constant revision. Feel free to use these resources for non- commercial purposes but please attribute source. Copyright, 1999-2001 Stephen Wilson