Table of Contents from Information Arts: Intersections of Art, Science, and Technology

(by Stephen Wilson, MIT Press/Leonardo Books, 2001)

selected artists xiii
selected technologies xvii
series foreword xix
foreword by joel slayton xxi
preface xxiii

1 Introduction, Methodology, Definitions, and Theoretical Overview 1
1.1 art and science as cultural acts 2
A Quiz 4
Revisiting the Relationship of Art and Techno-Scientific Research 5
Organization of the Book 7
The Deficiency of Categorization 8
What Areas of Technological Art Are Included? Which Are Not? 9
Definitions and Theoretical Reflections 11
Similarities and Differences between Science and Art 18
Critical Theory and Problematic Issues in the Integration of Art and
Techno-Scientific Research 20
Artists' Stances in Integrating Research 25
Summary: The End of Timelessness? 30
1.2 elaboration on the approach of art as research 34
Can the Arts Offer Alternatives in Setting Research Agendas, Interpreting
Results, and Communicating Findings? 35
What Is a Viable Role for Artists in Research Settings? What Can
Researchers Contribute to Art and What Can Artists Contribute to Research?
What Can High-Tech Companies Gain from Artists Being Involved? 36
Art Characteristics Useful for Research 38
Preparing Artists for Research 39
The Integration of Research and Art 40
Art and Science/Technology Collaborations 41
Future Possibilities 48

2 Biology: Microbiology, Animals and Plants, Ecology, and Medicine and the
Body 53
2.1 biology: research agendas and theoretical overview 54
Introduction 55
Research Agendas in Biology and Medicine 56
Areas of Cultural Significance in Biological Research 59
Theoretical Perspectives on Biology and the Body 72
Rethinking the Body and Medicine 77
Searching for Aesthetic Form in Art and Science 84
How Are Biology-Based Theory and Research Important to the Arts? 88
2.2 artists working with microbiology 94
Introduction: Microbiology and Genetics as Artistic Interest 95
Manipulations and Investigations of the Microworld 96
Creating Forms and Visualizations Based on Its Structures, Including the
New Iconography of Gene Mapping 101
Reflections on the Processes of Genetic Science and Its Social Implications 105
Summary: Micro Steps 108
2.3 plants and animals 110
Introduction 111
Invertebrates 112
Arthropods: Insects and Spiders 116
Plants 118
Vertebrates 120
Acoustic Ecology 123
Summary 126
2.4 ecological art 128
Ecology: Organic Life as a System 129
Questions Raised by Artistic Interest in Ecology 130
Historical Examples of Artistic Work 131
Contemporary Artistic Work with Ecological Concepts 133
Summary: Linking Science and Art in Action 146
2.5 body and medicine 148
Introduction: Bodies, Technology, and Theory 149
Extropian and Post-Human Approaches 154
Artists' Experiments with Technological Stimulation 157
Artists' Experiments with Smell 169
Artists' Experiments with Surgery 170
Experiments with Tissue Culture 174
Body Modification 174
Brain Processes, Heartbeats, Breath, Biosensors, and Psychology 180
The Psychological Processes of Perception, Cognition, Appreciation, and
Creativity 189
Body Imaging 189
Medicine, Hospitals, Bodily Fluids, and Death 193
Summary: Dissecting the Body 198

3 Physics, Nonlinear Systems, Nanotechnology, Materials Science, Geology,
Astronomy, Space Science, Global Positioning System, and Cosmology 201
3.1 physical science research agendas and theoretical reflections 202
Introduction: Questions about the Biggest and Smallest of Things 203
Survey of Research Fields and Agendas 204
Nonlinear Systems, Chaos, and Complexity 207
Astronomy, Cosmology, and Space Science 209
Epistemology-How Do We Know What We Know? 211
Potentially Important Emergent Technologies 213
Summary: Artist Explorations of Physical Science Research and Concepts 221
3.2 atomic physics, nanotechnology, and nuclear science 222
Atomic Physics 223
Viewing and Manipulating the Atomic World-Nanotechnology 226
Nuclear Science 230
Summary: Difficulties of Working at the Atomic Level 233
3.3 materials and natural phenomena: nonlinear dynamic systems, water,
weather, solar energy, geology, and mechanical motion 234
Nonlinear Systems 235
Natural Phenomena-Oceans, Water, and Moving Liquid 239
Natural Phenomena-Erosion and Geological Action 241
Natural Phenomena-The Sky, Winds, and Weather 244
Solar Art 246
Mechanics-Oscillation and Pendulum Action 251
Fire, Heat, Magnetics, and Electromagnetics 253
Materials Science, Rapid Prototyping, and Chemistry 253
Summary: Pattern Finding and Poetry of Matter 256
3.4 space 260
Artistic Interest in Space 261
Views from Space 263
Art Viewed from Earth 265
Art Executed in Space and Weightlessness 268
Painting and Photography Based on Space Exploration 271
Conceptual and Electronic Works 271
Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) 275
Art Critiques of Space Research 278
Summary: The Hopes 279
3.5 global positioning system (gps) 282
Possibilities and Dangers 283
Artistic Experimentation with GPS 283
Summary: Unexpected Implications 292

4 Algorithms, Mathematics, Fractals, Genetic Art, and Artificial Life 295
4.1 research agendas in mathematics and artificial life 296
Why Is Mathematics Part of a Book on Science, Technology, and Art? 297
A Review of Research Agendas in Mathematics 298
Artificial Life 302
Theoretical Perspectives on A-Life 305
Summary 311
4.2 algorithmic art, art and mathematics, and fractals 312
Algorithmic Art 313
Art and Mathematics 320
Fractals 330
Promise and Problems in Art and Mathematics and Algorithmic Art 333
Literacy-Audience Background 334
Understanding Systems 336
Abstraction and Cultural Theory 337
4.3 artificial life and genetic art 340
A-Life Sculpture and Autonomous Agents 341
Genetic, Evolutionary, and Organic Art 351

5 Kinetics, Sound Installations, and Robots 367
5.1 robotics and kinetics 368
Introduction: Robots-Creatures of Art and Science 369
An Overview of Scientific and Technological Research Agendas 371
Examples of Conceptual Challenges and Approaches 374
Robots and Popular Culture 382
Summary: Robot Hopes, Fears, and Realities 383
5.2 conceptual kinetics and electronics 386
Artistic Research 387
Kinetic Art Precursors 388
Kinetics and Light Sculpture 389
Conceptual Kinetics 392
Summary: More Than Robotics 405
5.3 kinetic instruments, sound sculpture, and industrial music 406
A Brief Theoretical Overture 407
Experiments in Sound Installation 409
Summary: Research as Art 422
5.4 robots 424
Robotic Theater and Robotic Dance 425
Autonomy 427
Extreme Performance, Destruction, Mayhem, and Control 432
Social Metaphors 440
Extending Robot Motion and Interfaces 446
Robot Architecture 451
Summary: Kinetics and Robots-Hybrids of Art and Science 454

6 Telecommunications 457
6.1 telecommunications research agendas and theoretical reflections 458
Introduction: Overcoming Distance 459
Telecommunications Research and Development 460
Research Trends in Telepresence 469
The Meaning of the Telecommunications ''Revolution'' 473
The Exploration of New Possibilities 481
Summary: Telecommunications-The Grand Cyber Debate 484
6.2 telephone, radio, and 486
A Brief History of Telematic Art 487
Theoretical Perspectives on Telephone Art 488
Examples of Telephone-Based Art 490
Radio, Television, and Wireless 497
Radio-Based Art and Theater Installations 503
Art Radio 504
The Migration to Net.Radio 507
Summary: Dangers and Opportunities in Convergence 511
6.3 teleconferencing, videoconferencing, satellites, the internet, and
telepresence 514
Teleconferencing, Videoconferencing, Satellites, and Internet Collaboration 515
Telepresence Definitions 526
Artists Exploring Telepresence 528
Visualizing Net Activity 549
Parapsychological Communication 554
Summary: Being There 556
6.4 web art 558
Critical Perspectives on Web Art 561
Archive and Information Sites 564
Projects to Accumulate Web-Viewer Opinions 572
Genetic Art Using Web-Visitor Voting 573
Recomposing Web Resources 576
Collaborative Environments and Person-to-Person Communication 579
The Development of New Capabilities 585
Reflections about the Net 589
Arrangements That Use Readings of the Physical World to Affect the Web 596
Cool Sites 599
Summary: The Web as an Art Arena 600

7 Digital Information Systems/Computers 603
7.1 research agendas and theoretical overview 604
Introduction: The Computer Revolution 605
Diverse Histories of Technological Imagination 605
Research Agendas 607
Theoretical Reflections on the Digital Culture and Art 630
Summary: Debate in the Art Community-Possibilities of an Enhanced Future 657
7.2 computer media 664
Introduction: Extensions of Photography, Cinema, Video, and Literature 665
Deconstructive and Feminist Critiques of Cultural Trends 666
Extending Poetic and Expressive Capabilities 671
Art Games 676
Multi-Person Events 679
Video Installation 680
Interactive Documentary 685
Hyperfiction 688
Summary: Computer Media-The Next Stages of Cinema and Television? 689
7.3 virtual reality 692
Introduction: Artists as Architects of Virtual Reality 693
Unorthodox Spaces and Characters 694
The Virtual Reality World as Metaphor 705
Alternative Objects and Creatures 709
Relationships between the Physical and the Virtual 712
Information Visualization 717
Distributed Virtual Reality 721
Virtual Reality, Music, and Theater 722
Research and Commercial Virtual Reality Environments 725
Summary 726
7.4 motion, gesture, touch, gaze, manipulation, and activated objects 728
Introduction: Reworking the Interface 729
Motion 730
Gesture 745
Touch and Tactility 749
Gaze 755
Face Recognition 758
Complex Actions-Balance, Walking, and Bicycling 760
Breath 764
Activated Objects 764
Summary: Can a Computer Do More Than See and Hear? 772
7.5 speech synthesis, voice recognition, and 3-d sound 774
Sound Research 775
3-D Sound 776
Speech Synthesis and Manipulation 780
Speech Recognition 782
Summary: Something to Talk About 784
7.6 artificial intelligence 786
Artificial Intelligence Research 787
Algorithms for Creativity 789
Image and Speech Recognition 794
Interactions with Artificial Characters 797
Affective Computing 804
Agents 806
Summary: The Role of the Arts in Artificial Intelligence and Agent Research 809
7.7 information and surveillance 812
Information Management, Visualization, Commerce, and Surveillance 813
Bar Codes and ID Technologies 814
Surveillance 815
Databases and Research Processes 822
Information Visualization 829
Reflections on Science 833
Information Organizations and Structures 836
Summary: Being Formed by Information 846

8 Resources 849
8.1 exhibitions and festivals; educational programs; art, and research
collaborations; organizational resources, think tanks, and web resources 850
Permanent Spaces, Museums, and Comprehensive Institutions 851
Competitions and Festivals 857
Organizations and Information Publishers 860
Art and Science-Technology Sponsors, Competitions, and Academic Convergence
Programs 865
Think Tanks and University Labs 866
Educational Resources 868
Research Conferences, Science Magazines, Trade Magazines, and Science
and  Technology Studies 872
Summary: Institutions as Art 873
8.2 summary-the future 874

Appendixes 879
A methodology 880
B books for further inquiry 886
name index 905
subject index 923

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