of the CECIPP:
Activities | Annual Reports | Working
of SFSU's La Raza Studiesi
By Jose B. Cuellar, Ph.D.
Professor of La Raza Studies &
Director of the Cesar E. Chavez Institute for Public Policy
San Francisco State University
Presented at "Taking Control of Our Destinies: El Desarollo de Chicana and Chicano Studies: A Symposium on Standards, Processes and Assessment for Developing and Maintaining Chicana and Chicano Studies in California," San Diego State University. October15, 1999.
La Raza Studies at San Francisco State (SFS) has managed to maintain its unique characteristics despite the many modifications it has undergone since its inception. In order to better understand the progressions and transformations in the past, present, and projected goals and objectives, curricula and commitments, approaches and achievements of La Raza Studies over the past three decades, these need to be placed in a historical context.
To facilitate my chronological summary of the thirty year period between 1969 and 1999, I frame it with both five and ten year markers. This helps highlight the continuities and changes from one period to the next, especially those coinciding with our academic program review cycles.
This historical overview specifically addresses the following empirical and analytical questions ii : 1) When was your program created? 2) What was the struggle that took place then? 3) When did it become a department? 4) What were the rationale behind the departmentís now established curriculum? 5) What struggles took place in the 60s, 70s, 80s, or 90s? 6) Were these struggles internal, or external (with the administration), over funding, curriculum assessment and hiring of faculty? 7) How did the administration encourage or discourage the growth of the department? 8) How has the department changed under your leadership as chair? Two additional questions addressed below have to do with accreditation. It is important for Chican@ Studies and/or Raza Studies to have an accreditation body? If so, why or why not?
The qualitative and quantitative data presented below to help answer these questions were primarily gathered from departmental documents, and augmented with group and individual interviews collected from some La Raza students, faculty, and staff familiar with its early evolution. iii
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THE FIRST THREE DECADES OF LA RAZA STUDIES AT SFSU
The Early Seventies Cycle
La Raza Studies at San Francisco State (SFS) resulted from the 1968-69 student strike led by the Third-World Liberation Front. The principal demands of the strikers included increased enrollment of minority students at SFS, and the implementation of relevant ethnic-specific curriculum for Black, Asian, Indian and Mexican/Latino Americans. Out of that struggle were forged the four academic units comprising todayís "College of Ethnic Studies". iv
From its inception, the Ethnic Studies program now known as La Raza Studies was specifically structured in response to the militant demands of concerned student, faculty and community activists for an academic agenda that would better address the unique higher education needs of the Chicano and Latino communities of the greater San Francisco Bay Area. It was also geared to give the general student population a better understanding of the conditions and concerns of the populations of Mexican and Latin American descent, from local to international, and to explore what might be done to improve their lives.
It is important to underscore here that the intense struggle to establish the four Ethnic Studies programs resulted in great part from the inability or unwillingness of San Francisco State's predominately Eurocentric traditional departments to teach students about Raza and other ethnic populations in the United States. Prior to the 1968 Strike, the only San Francisco State courses with Mexican/Latin American content were taught by Dr. Juan Martinez, a Chicano lecturer in History, and Dr. Ted Murguia, a tenured professor of Mexican descent in Foreign Languages. v These obviously helped stimulate increased interest in Raza-content courses among students, and contributed to both Drs. Martinez and Murguia becoming the primary faculty advocates for the establishment of a Mexican American Studies program at SFS in 1968.
During early Spring 1968, SFS President John Summerskill assigned Dr. Juan Martinez the responsibility for creating the plan for a Mexican American Studies program. The program proposal first developed by Dr. Juan Martinez and Jesus Contreras with other student-activists, concentrated on Raza-content courses in history and the social sciences. But it also included a very novel but viable notion of creating and maintaining satellite education stations in the San Francisco's Mission District, East Oakland, East San José, and in some more rural areas of northern California, for the purpose of both addressing local community issues and recruiting students from the widest geographical area. vi
The Martinez/Contreras et. al. plan was presented to SFS President Summerskill close to the end of the 1968 Spring semester. But it was never implemented. In late Spring 1968, Dr. Martinez, along with the Third World Liberation Front, led a group of students from the Mission District to the admissions office "sit-in" to demand special admission to SFS. vii
After a series of serious campus protests, John Summerskill resigned his presidency in May 1968, being replaced in June by Robert Smith. Moreover, Dr. Juan Martinez was not rehired by the History Department. This in effect killed the proposed Mexican American Studies program plan.
In the Fall semester of 1968, four other traditional SFS departments each offered one course with some Raza-content. viii The "Mexican American/Latin American Thought" course by Roberto Rivera is distinguished as the first Raza Studies course ever taught at San Francisco State.
In November, sparked by SFS president Smithís CSU-ordered suspension without due process of George Murray, a controversial Black Studies teaching assistant and grad student in English, who was also the Black Panther Minister of Education, the Third World Liberation Front (a coalition of the Black Students Union, the Filipino-American Students Organization, the Latin American Students Organization, and El Renacimiento--the Mexican-American student organization) went on strike and presented its set of 15 "non-negotiable" demands, including the creation of a "School of Ethnic Studies," the expansion of SFSís new Black Studies Department (the nation's first), and increased recruiting and admissions of minority students. After a series of intense confrontations on and off campus between police and SFS activists, Robert Smith resigned and was replaced by S. I. Hayakawa, a renown semanticist of Japanese descent, who became acting president in late November.
Hayakawaís ethnic orientation and forceful opposition to the strikers made him one of the most controversial university president in SFS history, and prolonged the conflict into the following Spring. After more than four months of strife, the longest campus strike in U.S. history officially comes to an end on March 21, 1969, with both SFS American Federation of Teachers union and the Third World Liberation Front signing agreements with Hayakawa that established the School of Ethnic Studies and expanded the Black Studies Department.
Before the 1968 strike, there were fewer than 50 full-time and 50 part-time working-class students of Mexican/Latin American descent at SFS. The strident demand for expanding special admission procedures for Chicanos and Latinos in 1969 stemmed from the campusí chronically low enrollment of Raza students.
In the Fall of 1969, also as a result of the Third-World strike demands, the first sizeable group of SFSís Educational Opportunity Program (EOP) Raza recruits consisted of 80 mostly Latino students from the Mission District of San Francisco, and 20 mostly Chicano/Mexican students from Oakland, Concord, Brentwood, Salinas, Modesto, Watsonville, and San Jose, were admitted.ix They became the first students committed to Ethnic Studies generally, and La Raza Studies specifically.
During late 1969, the Latin American Student Organization (LASO) and the Mexican American Student Confederation (MASC) joined to form La Raza Student Organization (LRSO) for the sake of unity among Chicanos and Latinos on campus. The academic program that eventually evolved into our present Department was created then through the joint efforts of this new coalition of Raza student activists, including several graduate students who became the first La Raza Studies faculty.
La Raza Studies was established at SFS in the Fall of 1969, with a starting faculty allocation equivalent to two full-time positions. It initially offered nine independent courses. x Four additional courses were offered in collaboration with three other SFS departments. xi The Spring semester, the program offered a total of 15 courses, xii including seven new courses. xiii During the summer of 1970, 52 students enrolled in four courses offered, two of which were new. xiv Twelve courses were offered by the program during Fall, 1970, with the student enrollment increasing to 221. xv
The first proposal for a La Raza Studies Major was then developed collaboratively by Esteban Blanco, who served as program chair and joint lecturer in Art (1969-71), and dean of Academic Planning Daniel Feder, with significant input from three La Raza Studies Lecturers: Jesus Contreras, Ronald Gómez, and Juan Pifarre. It was officially submitted by Esteban Blanco to the Administration in Spring of 1971.
The three objectives of the proposed La Raza Studies Major were:
A. To provide an opportunity for an integrated Liberal Arts Major for those students interested in the education and development of the La Raza community;
B. To provide students with a better understanding of the La Raza economic, cultural, and social heritage, thus developing their abilities to deal effectively with the complex problems of modern society; and
C. To train and prepare students for careers and professions requiring expertise in different aspects of La Raza experience.
The proposed 39-unit Bachelor of Arts in La Raza Studies included twelve units of basic core courses, xvi fifteen units of electives within an area of concentration, six units of electives within the major, and six units of electives from other disciplines. xvii The proposed program also required proficiency in contemporary Spanish of all Majors in La Raza Studies. This requirement could be fulfilled by successfully completing contemporary Spanish I and II, or by passing a departmental examination covering the equivalent material.
The 1971 degree proposal also specifically included the following rationale for officially naming the Major, "La Raza" Studies, as opposed to "Mexican American" Studies:The term La Raza is the most widespread term in use among Spanish-speaking, Spanish-surnamed persons in the United States. 'La Raza' emerges as a designation acceptable both to the U.S. born Chicano (Mexican-American) and the Latino (Latino-American) as well as those persons of mixed European and Native American descent born in other parts of the North and South American continents. xviii
"La Raza" are the people that evolved from the blending of the indigenous populations with the European conqueror and other non-European peoples. La Raza is the most inclusive term to describe these groups: it includes Mexican Americans, Central and South Americans as well as Puertoricanos [sic]. Such an identification is particularly important in the San Francisco area where significant numbers of Central and South Americans co-exist with the Mexican-American population. People from many of these countries are represented in various community organizations as well as on the campus. The term has a long history of usage among the indigenous Mexican-American population as well as among other Latin Americans.
San Francisco State College is unique in that the Latin student population unlike other areas of California is not predominantly Mexican-American, but is composed of many students of Central and South American heritage as well as Mexican-American. Hence, the more encompassing 'La Raza Studies' designation has been used instead of 'Mexican American." The nature of the population is similar and their interest and orientation are in many respects identical. The essential difference is that a La Raza B.A. Program must be designed to provide a broader perspective of the Spanish-Indian-African experience in the Americas with special emphasis on the nature of that experience in the United States.
The proposed B.A. degree program was justified as essential to the growth and development of La Raza Studies as a discipline. The La Raza Studies Major was centered around a coherent program which provided students with a broad-based understanding of la Raza as well as an in-depth comprehension of particular areas of concentration. The proposed program curricula was designed to provide both a liberal education background and an academic Major that prepared students planning to pursue graduate work. It was also considered appropriate for those wanting a standard teaching credential.
The B.A. degree program was formulated in response to the growing social pressures and increasing interests and demands from business and social service institutions in the community for a coherent plan for the study of La Raza. The B.A. degree proposal concluded with a list of courses that should be developed. xix This proposal was approved before the end of 1971 by the Academic Senate and president Hayakawa after considerable debate. xx
Paul F. Romberg, a biologist and botanist, replaced S. I. Hayakawa as SF State's tenth president in 1973. He established a long-range planning commission which produced a 10-year plan for the University, and helped increase recognition, both on and off-campus, of SF State as an urban university.
Juan Gonzalez, a Stockton-born Chicano journalist (Editor of El Tecolote, a community-based newspaper) served as La Raza Studies chair between 1972-and 1974. During that period, he encouraged the development of the Major in La Raza Studies with journalism as one unique area of emphasis. He also encouraged the incorporation of community service internships as part of the curriculum of La Raza Studies.
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The Late Seventies Cycle
By the beginning Fall 1975, in response to a faculty petition, the programís name was finally changed from "Mexican American " to "La Raza" Studies. This was also the time that La Raza Studies started offering upper division courses that satisfied the requirements for the Bilingual/Cross-Cultural Specialist Credential offered jointly with the School of Education. These La Raza Studies courses were specifically designed to assist future bilingual teachers to gain further understanding of the bilingual/multicultural process in education. xxi These courses provided student competencies requiring knowledge of "culture and community" and "curriculum development" and "teaching strategies" as required by the California Teacher Preparation and Licensing Commission.
By the end of Spring 1978, La Raza Studies had a base allocation of 5.23 full-time faculty equivalent (FTFE), and was offering an average of 23 courses per semester. It served approximately 565 students with a full time student equivalent (FTSE) of 113. However, the program was still staffed by only one full-time faculty, assistant professor and Chair Alfredo Rivas, plus two shared appointments with Administrative and Interdisciplinary Studies in Education (DAIS)--assistant professor Jake Perea and Lecturer Roberto Rivera--and a large multiethnic cadre of committed part-time lecturers who carried the program by teaching most of the program's courses. xxii Thus the second cycle of the first decade concluded with an established but understaffed Department of La Raza Studies with a Major and Minor housed in San Francisco Stateís "School" of Ethnic Studies.
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The Early Eighties Cycle
Roberto Rivera, the only full-time faculty of La Raza Studies, served as chair from 1979 to 1982, a particularly difficult period in the Department's history. La Raza Studies offered between 14 and 17 courses per semester between Fall 1979 and Fall 1985. This was a significant reduction of at least seven courses per semester compared to the late seventies. Nonetheless, between 1980 and 1984, La Raza Studies annually averaged five graduates with B.A. degrees, accounting for nine percent of the CSU system's total graduates in La Raza/Chicano Studies. Indeed, by the end of Spring, 1984, La Raza Studies, was one of eight degree-granting Chicano/La Raza Studies programs in the CSU system and had graduated at least 50 Majors.
During this third five-year cycle, La Raza Studies also attracted significantly more students than might be expected given the significant under-funding that caused the notable reduction of course offerings. xxiii By Spring 1984, La Raza Studies had 15 officially declared Majors, and almost twice as many undeclared ones. The positive academic relationships established by this time with a number of other departments and programs resulted in a significant number of cross-listed La Raza Studies courses that also fulfilled elective requirements for Majors and Minors in International Relations, Psychology, Sociology, Education, Film, Journalism, and Anthropology. This also contributed to the increased FTES.
La Raza Studies received a slight increase, from 2.85 to 3.2, in its base faculty allocation during this third cycle. And between Spring 1983 and Fall 1984, its temporary allocation was increased (up to 4.2) to hire more full-time faculty, especially women. Juan Gonzalez, who again served as chair between 1983 and 1984, was particularly influential in the establishment of La Raza Studiesí community service components during this third cycle.
One other important development in La Raza Studies during the early eighties involved some significant changes in the Major and Minor curricula. The core courses were broaden with respect to areas of specialization and interest. The total number of required units in the Major program were increased from 39 to 45 units during this third cycle. The required number of units in the core were increased from 15 to 18 units, moreover, the areas of concentration were reduced from three to two ("Arts & Culture" and "Behavioral & Social Sciences"). The courses concentrated under "Community & Social Services" were incorporated into the core courses and the elective courses in the two new areas of concentration. The Minor curriculum mirrored the core course changes, but without increasing the total number of required units. These modifications were designed to encourage all La Raza Majors and Minors to increase active participation in community service activities where they could apply the theoretical and practical knowledge gained from their coursework.
Since the beginning, a critical component of La Raza Studies is its continuing commitment to community service learning; best articulated by the words of José Vasconcelos, Mexico's revolutionary philosopher--"At this moment we do not come to work for the university, but to demand that the university work for our people." This community-centered orientation of La Raza Studies is consistent with the program goals and guidelines proposed in El Plan De Santa Barbara--The Master Plan For Chicanos In Higher Education . xxiv
Since Fall 1982, La Raza Studies has placed an average of 30 students per semester in community based settings. xxv This effort, combined with the continued community involvement of La Raza studies faculty, significantly strengthened the relationship between La Raza Studies and the local communities by the mid-eighties.
Dr. Chia Wei Woo became the first Chinese American to head a major university when he became the eleventh president of SFS in 1983. While making San Francisco State "The City's University" by working to local leaders to develop a variety of San Francisco-centered programs and activities, and strengthening SFSU's international curriculum and Pacific Rim ties, Dr. Woo did little to strengthened either Ethnic Studies generally or Raza Studies specifically.
La Raza Studies completed its departmental self-study report in 1984. It concentrated on two issues: the need to increase cross-referencing courses with other departments; and, the need to generally increase promotion of La Raza Studies campus-wide.
As a result of this departmental self-study, La Raza Studies faculty developed and implemented plans to streamline and revise curriculum (course descriptions and titles) and to develop new courses that met the needs of students. xxvi Dr. Carlos B. Cordova, as chair of La Raza Studiesí Curriculum Development & Review Committee, led the efforts to write and develop La Raza Studies course proposals that met the General Education (GE) and statutory requirements during this cycle. The positive results of this effort were reaped in terms of FTES during subsequent cycles.
This cycleís academic program review also underscored the facultyís commitment to continue offering and promoting comparative La Raza Studies courses listed under Ethnic Studies, and the enthusiastic desire to continue participating in the Ethnic Studies M.A. Program. It also specifically identified the need to increase the number of full-time tenure-track faculty from one to three, and to increase the base allocation from 3.2 to 5.0 faculty. This increase proposed to have positive effects in three areas. It would ensure substantial La Raza Studies representation on SFSUís policy-making committees. It would help better meet the teaching and advising demands of students. And, it would further enhance departmental efforts to secure outside grants. The third cycle program review also underscored the need to specifically hire one full-time tenure-track female faculty to better address gender issues.
The Senate ës Academic Program Review Committee (APRC) report concluded that the La Raza Studies was finding it increasingly difficult to offer its full repertoire of courses on a regular basis. xxvii The Major and Minor programs were found to have especially suffered during this third cycle. Of the core courses listed, only those that also satisfy GE requirements were regularly offered. xxviii Two required courses xxix were each given only five times in the ten semesters following Fall 1981. All four core courses xxx from which students were to choose two, were not always available. One course was only offered five times, another four times, another three times and the other twice since Fall 1981. As a consequence, the APRC report to the Academic Senate concluded that completing the prescribed Major and Minor programs in La Raza Studies had become virtually impossible by the beginning of the Departmentís fourth cycle.
The APRC associated the steady decline in the number of students enrolled in La Raza Studies courses during this period with the program shrinkage each semester. However, this third cycle program review also suggested that it may have resulted from either the nation-wide shift in student interests from liberal arts to professional programs, or from conscious departmental decisions to invest available La Raza Studies resources in Ethnic Studies (ETHS) courses rather than in other La Raza Studies courses. xxxi
The comparative data shows that the base La Raza Studies faculty allocation for this cycle remained relatively low, xxxii particularly when compared to the Black Studies and Asian American Studies programs, which had at least twice the number of permanent and temporary faculty allocation during the same period. Moreover, only a very small portion of this allocation supported tenured or tenure-track La Raza Studies faculty. Most of it went for part-time faculty hiring. The APRC report concluded that while committed to the mission of the program, the existing La Raza Studies part-time faculty could not sustain the program without additional permanent faculty, preferably with advanced degrees. xxxiii
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The Late Eighties Cycle.
La Raza Studies was stabilized and even expanded during the late eighties cycle, in contrast to the early eighties. Professor Rivera again helped provide stability as acting chair during 1984-85, an academic year when La Raza Studies conducted an especially time-consuming and, unfortunately, unproductive national search for a senior faculty to serve as permanent chair. Still, the department continued developing under the leadership of two other resourceful acting chairs during this cycle. xxxiv
La Raza Studies received enough resources to offer a total of forty-one (15 lower-division and 26 were upper-division) courses during the following academic year. Some were Major/Minor core courses. Others satisfied the specific Bilingual/Cross-Cultural Specialist Credential program requirements set by the College of Education. And still others satisfied the University's GE requirements or elective course needs.
Following the APRC report curricular recommendation, La Raza Studies took steps to offer the required Major/Minor courses more regularly. Also responding to another APRC report curricular recommendation, La Raza Studies reviewed and modified its core and concentration requirements to correspond to current faculty resources, and student needs to complete degree requirements in a more timely fashion. Also consistent with the earlier APRC recommendations, La Raza Studies received additional resources to recruit and hire two additional tenure-track faculty with advanced degrees, starting Fall of 1986 to provide stability for the program during this fourth cycle. xxxv Then acting chair Jake Perea specifically initiated the tenure-track hiring of the first Chicana Studies specialist to fill the gap in the essentially male-dominated Latino oriented program.
After five years, President Woo resigned in 1988, and Dr. Robert A. Corrigan, who established Afro-American Studies and Womenís Studies at the University of Iowa, became SF State's twelfth president, but the first to publicly profess a commitment to the continuation of Ethnic Studies. That same year, Dr. Carlos B. Cordova, as acting La Raza Studies chair, developed an international component in the curriculum of La Raza Studies that primarily emphasized Central American concerns. xxxvi Professor Cordova also helped established two Department publications, The Journal Of La Raza Studies and Cipactli during this fourth cycle.
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The Early Nineties Cycle
In 1989, President Corrigan and elevated the status of Ethnic Studies from School to College, and named Dr. Phil McGee as its Dean. That Fall, Dr. Mary Romero, a noted Chicana sociologist with significant administrative experience as Assistant Dean at Yale University, assumed the position of professor and chair of La Raza Studies. During her brief SFSU tenure, Dr. Romero underscored the need to give increasing attention to the incorporation of gender in La Raza Studies by helping establish the GE segment III "Relationships of Knowledge" cluster, "Women of Color in the United States." She also advocated for additional tenure-track positions for La Raza Studies.
A joint appointment search with Theater Arts for a tenure-track professorship during early 1989-90 was converted into a full-time assistant professorship in Theater Arts with one-course per-semester assigned time to teach "La Raza Teatro Workshop." xxxvii This established unique kind of joint faculty relationship between La Raza Studies and another SFSU department beginning 1990-91.
I first assumed responsibilities as acting chair and visiting professor of La Raza Studies beginning Fall 1990, when I served as a leave replacement for Dr. Romero, who had accepted a one-year visiting professorship at the University of Oregon. I then accepted the permanent position as tenured professor and chair of La Raza Studies beginning Fall 1991, following Dr. Romero's resignation the Summer before.
I initially defined my fundamental management goal as providing the departmental leadership necessary to achieve the program stability associated with the following specific short-term objectives beginning in 1991-92: (1) increase the number of full-time tenure/tenure track professors and lecturers, and reduce the high turnover in part-time lecturers; (2) expand the curriculum by increasing the total number of courses taught per semester; (3) increase the total number of students taking our courses to satisfy GE and elective requirements.; and (4) increase the number of undergraduates with declared Major and Minor in La Raza Studies. I also started articulating the four (critical, holistic, reflexive and community-centered) orientations of our La Raza Studies paradigm in all my classes, particularly "Introduction to La Raza Studies" by the end of my first year". xxxviii
The stability of La Raza Studies during the early nineties was enhanced by the following. Three La Raza Studies faculty were promoted during this fifth cycle. Dr. Velia Garcia, the first Chicana specialist on tenure-track, and Roberto Rivera the founding father of the program were promoted to Associate professor. And Dr. Carlos Cordova was first promoted to Associate professor and then later to Professor. The number of tenured faculty doubled, from two to four, by the end of 1992. xxxix An additional full-time tenure-track assistant professor was hired the following year.
Authorized to fill a tenure-track position with a specialist to teach "U.S. Government and Constitution Ideals," our popular basic subjects GE course, and also develop other Raza politics courses, La Raza Studies appointed the Stanford-educated Chicana political scientist, Dr. Teresa Carrillo, as an assistant professor beginning Fall 1993. Although La Raza Studies was also authorized to fill a tenure-track assistant professorship with a Mexican American history specialist starting Fall 1994, the faculty of La Raza Studies decided to postpone the search until after the fifth cycle's academic program review was completed, in order to insure the search was consistent with the program 's defined needs.
During the course of our fifth cycle internal review, La Raza Studies faculty became increasingly impressed with the growing importance of the gender factor as a theoretical issue and practical concern in terms of our teaching, research, and community service. Much of the cutting-edge research and critical literature in our field in recent years has been produced by female scholar-activists who emphasize gender as an essential variable that is inextricably correlated with the other essential variables of race/ethnic, age cohort, and economic class. xl
In response to this major s academic development, the faculty made a commitment as a result of the fifth cycle program review to collectively and conscientiously introduce gender as a major analytical variable in our curriculum, especially increasing and emphasizing the writings by and about Raza women in our courses. This led to a fundamental faculty recommendation that more Raza Studies specialists in gender issues and concerns be recruited and hired.
La Raza Studies experienced several other improvements during this cycle. It regularly offered enough courses each semester for at least some students to complete a 48-unit Major and a 24-unit Minor. Toward the end of this fifth cycle, the 36 courses listed in the 1993-94 Bulletin could be definitely characterized as multiethnic (multicultural and multilingual) as well as multidisciplinary (Arts and Humanities, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Bilingual Education, Health and Human services). Virtually all of the Major/Minor core and elective courses also satisfied GE requirements by the mid-nineties. La Raza Studies ended 1993-94 with a base allocation of 4.8 full-time faculty equivalent.
La Raza Studies faculty also regularly taught for other programs, such as: Step-To-College Program, the Bilingual/Cross Cultural Specialist in Education credential program, and the Faculty/Student Mentorship Program during the early nineties; thereby generating faculty-release funds for the more regular hiring of additional part-time Lecturers. The turnover of part-time faculty was reduced by a concerted administrative effort to retain as many of the same part-time and full-time Lecturers as possible from one semester to the next throughout the nineties. xli
During the early nineties, La Raza Studies offer only one experimental new course xlii and two revived courses xliii that had not been taught for a number of years. Still, the total number of students enrolled in elective and GE courses increased, as did the number of both Majors and Minors in La Raza Studies, during the same cycle. xliv And the faculty/student ratios also increased significantly. xlv
La Raza Studies also increased the number of cooperative teaching ventures with other departments and programs, including: Theater Arts, Humanities, Psychology, Social Work, Education, History, Health Education and Recreation Program, Anthropology, Political Science, Women's Studies, Music, Urban Studies, and Labor Studies. These efforts involved cross-listing courses, team-teaching, faculty-sharing, guest lecturing, serving on other departments' Hiring, Retention, Tenure and Promotion (HRTP) committees, and participating in conferences and programs organized by other departments. The two-fold goal of these cooperative efforts during the early nineties were to infuse La Raza Studies content into other curricula and to expose students in other disciplines to La Raza Studies faculty.
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The 1994-1999 Cycle
Fall 1994 started with an additional twenty-two incoming first-year and transfer students declaring La Raza Studies as their Major. They joined approximately 102 others who were already declared La Raza Studies Majors during the early nineties cycle. They were in turn joined, each year of the programís sixth cycle, by similar numbers of new SFSU students who declared La Raza Studies as their incoming Major.
La Raza Studies completed its department internal fifth cycle academic program review by the end of 1995, although, the Academic Performance Review Committee did not produce its report until the end of 1997-98. The response of La Raza Studies to the APRC assessment included a set of recommendations that the department was prepared to implement with no additional resources as well as another set of recommendations requiring additional resources to implement. xlvi
This cycle's internal academic program review and resource assessmeer understanding of the conditions and concerns of the populations of Mexican and Latin American descent, from local to international, and to explore what might be done to improve their lives.
It is important to underscore here that the intense struggle to establish the four Ethnic Studies programs resulted in great part from the inability or unwillingness of San Francisco State's predominately Eurocentric traditional departments to teach students about Raza and other ethnic populati a California-native of Cuban descent who specializes in the oral history of Afro-Caribbean mujer migration to the US, and Chicano history accepted a tenure-track appointment beginning Fall 1997.
La Raza Studies also needed a full-time creative writing and contemporary literature specialist to teach four essential Major/Minor courses ("2nd Year Writing Composition," "The Creative Writing Workshop," "Introduction to Contemporary Literature of La Raza," and "Contemporary Literature of La Raza"), xlviii After a 1996-97 national search, Alejandro Murguia, a master Chicano writer with an impressive list of prize-winning publications and excellent teaching evaluations, accepted a tenure-track appointment as assistant professor also starting Fall 1997. A year earlier, Dr. Roberto Haro, noted CSU educator and administrator, was transferred to SFSU from SJSU to serve as director of Research for the Cesar E. Chavez Institute for Public Policy, and tenured professor of La Raza Studies.
Thus, at the end of this century, the core La Raza Studies faculty consists of three tenured Professors, xlix three tenured associate professors, l two tenure-track assistant professors li and two full-time lecturers. lii All full-time faculty hold terminal degrees in their disciplines of origin from prestigious institutions. liii
The research and teaching interests of our current full-time faculty reflected our Latin@ population's tremendous diversity and heterogeneity. The tenured/tenure-track full-time faculty include specialists reflecting the demographic distribution of the Raza population of the greater San Francisco Bay area: one tenure-track Caribbean specialist, liv two tenured Central American specialists, lv and six Mexican American specialists (four tenured lvi and one tenure-track lvii ), three of whom have had significant research and travel experiences in the Caribbean and Central America. lviii In gender terms, the full-time faculty consists of five males lix and four females. lx These ethnic , geographic and gender intersections helped define our evolving La Raza Studies program's academic goal, overarching objectives and paradigmatic orientations.
The main academic goal of La Raza Studies is to provide our undergraduate and graduate students with the critical, holistic , reflexive, and community-centered experiences and expertise needed to pursue further studies and any number of careers. Its overarching objectives are:
* To provide an integrated liberal arts curriculum of Major/Minor core courses, elective courses, and General Education courses that prepare students to properly comprehend and appropriately respond to past, present and projected conditions and concerns of Mexican, Caribbean, Central, and South Americans in the United States in all their impressive diversity and complexity. lxi
* To improve the overall level of academic attainment of students in the greater San Francisco Bay Area and the state of California by addressing the higher education needs of Raza and other students at SFSU.
* To develop La Raza Studies graduates who have the competence and commitment to help themselves and others reach sound decisions and take positive actions that help improve the lives of those in great need around us.
Toward that end, La Raza Studies faculty require that students in our classes learn how:
* to think, read, write and respond more critically and creatively in multiethnic and multidisciplinary terms;
* to holistically and systematically collect and construct, comparatively analyze and interpret qualitative and quantitative data on various segments of Latin@s from multiple sources, with multiple methodologies and multiple theories for multiple purposes;
* to develop and assume reflexive perspectives and positions during research; learning to examine and expose those usually unstated insider/outsider biases and assumptions affecting the development of deeper understandings and greater sensitivities to our circumstances and those of others; and
* to orient selves and careers toward combining knowledge and action for the betterment of all communities, but particularly those in greatest need.
Our La Raza Studies curriculum is therefore articulated around these critical, holistic, reflexive and community-centered paradigm orientations. These orientations are all assumed to be equally important and interconnected, thus requiring the persistent interfacing of the four when we apply what we learned in La Raza Studies. Now let me detail the four components of this paradigm.
Critical. The critical orientation builds on the tradition established by Raza activist -scholar pioneers lxii and developed by our more contemporary colleagues. lxiii This orienting proposition directs us to be particularly critical of dominant institutions, dominant individuals, and dominant ideological discourses (for example, machismo, classismo, and eurocentrismo) throughout our curriculum. The seeds of this critical orientation are usually planted in two lower division courses, LARA 110 "Critical Thinking--La Raza Perspective" and LARA 214 "2nd Year Written Composition." lxiv These are then underscored throughout our La Raza Studies curriculum, especially in LARA 570 "Philosophy of La Raza." lxv
Holistic. Our holistic scope spans from the interpersonal to the international and from the individual to the universal. It encourages a multidisciplinary team research approach that uses comparative methods and theories for its interpretations and conclusions.
This holistic orientation guided our La Raza Studies faculty development plan, resulting in a diverse full-time La Raza Studies faculty. lxvi It resulted in a developed dedication among La Raza Studies faculty to transcend the boundaries of both disciplinary and ethnic of origin to learn and teach about "los otros/the others." lxvii It also prompted a recently proposed revision of the Major and Minor in order to make it more holistic. lxviii
Reflexive. The reflexive orientation steers our learning strategies in several specific ways. It demands the methodical exposure of our usually unstated assumptions and biases (usually, those rooted in gender and generation, geographic, ethnic and economic statuses). It also insists that students learn to use life experiences as part of their intellectual craftsmanship, as C. Wright Mills emphasized, "continually to examine and interpret it." lxix Therefore, it also requires paying serious attention to the shifting dialectic dynamic of the hermeneutic circle regarding the "subjective insider/objective outsider" dilemma. lxx As reflexive examples, our La Raza Studies curriculum and pedagogy systematically incorporate the critical biographic readings and writings of various kinds, lxxi especially subjective first person ethnographic and historical narratives. lxxii
Community-Centered. Since its beginning, La Raza Studies has offered a number of courses that include involvement with community agencies and organizations as part of the learning experience. By the late 1980s, the department averaged 30 student placements per semester in various community service settings. lxxiii A decade later, the average number of La Raza Studies community service learning (CSL) course placements more than tripled. lxxiv
This orientation is clearly consonant with both the historical mission of El Plan de Santa Barbara (1970), lxxv and with the contemporary mission of SFSU. lxxvi SFSU dedicates so much of its faculty and student resources to crucial community concerns, that its most recent WASC re-accreditation report recognized it as an institution that cares about its community and contributes regularly and substantially to the quality of life in the Bay Area. Indeed, since 1996, SFSU has augmented support of its maxim, "the community is our classroom," with a three year CSU Chancellorís grant designed to produce more community service learning courses involving faculty and students in the issues of surrounding Bay Area communities. lxxvii
This recent initiative strengthened the long-standing commitment of La Raza Studies to creating curriculum connected with surrounding communities with a number of grants. lxxviii La Raza Studies currently offers more courses with CSL components than any other department on campus. lxxix And, with two recent grants from SFSU's Office of CSL, La Raza Studies is now the first to develop CSL courses with comparative international perspectives. lxxx
The core requirement LARA 680 "Community Organizing" is in essence the upper division "capstone" course that allows all Majors and Minors to review and synthesize the centrality of community in La Raza Studies. Thus, La Raza Studies emphasizes community-centered service learning throughout the undergraduate educational careers of our students at SFSU.
Beginning Fall 1999, Lecturer Brigitte Davila assumed the position of La Raza Studies CSL Program Director, with the primary responsibility of coordinating the department's CSL internships. This anticipates the increased focus on CSL as an integral experience at all educational levels, particularly the undergraduate.
During this late nineties cycle, La Raza Studies faculty produced a number of important department-based publications, in addition to their own scholarly work. Assistant professor Alejandro Murguia and his creative writing students revived the dormant publication of Cipactli , a student-centered journal of creative writing with instructionally -related activities funding. Associate professor Teresa Carrillo and her La Raza Women's Seminar students also used instructionally-related activities funding to revive the quiescent mujer's journal with a new title, Coyoxauhqui Remembered. Moreover, during the past two years, La Raza Studies faculty lxxxi produced two La Raza-theme calendars for Pomegranate lxxxii in an effort to raise funds for departmental incidentals.
After Dr. Carlos Cordova served again as interim department chair during 1998-99, lxxxiii Dr. Velia Garcia assumed the chair of La Raza Studies beginning Fall 1999 with a three year commitment to lead the department well into the 21st Century. Despite the downs and ups over the past three decades, La Raza Studies maintains and fosters a departmental culture of professional excellence, positive spirit and strong collegial support among its faculty. Managed with a highly participatory structure that facilitates the democratic distribution of departmental obligations and opportunities, department chairs share responsibilities with La Raza Studies faculty for curriculum development, as well as budget and personnel matters.
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TRENDS AND THEMES INTO THE Y2K
La Raza Studies is entering the next century with an excellent undergraduate program offered by a first-rate faculty. It meets the general education needs of students who want to gain better knowledge of La Raza on an elective basis, as well as those who want to Major or Minor in La Raza Studies as preparation for graduate studies or paraprofessional occupations. La Raza Studies courses are generally rigorous, often innovative, and always involve strong critical reading and writing components. All tenured and tenure-track La Raza Studies faculty have demonstrated strong teaching abilities.
In an effort to enhance both its teaching and its commitment to the infusion of multicultural ism throughout the university's curriculum, La Raza Studies faculty continues developing a number of positive working relationships with other academic programs and support units on campus. lxxxiv This interconnectedness also helps the department 's deserved reputation as one of the more interactive units on campus.
Working with SFSU's Center for the Enhancement of Teaching and the Advising Center, the faculty continues exploring innovative ways of using three basic interconnected learning strategies: the small group approach, computer-enhanced multimedia learning, and peer-based tutoring. Besides being innovative and caring teachers, La Raza Studies faculty also serve students as valuable personal role-models, concerned mentors, and knowledgeable advisors.
SFSU's La Raza Studies remains as the only program in the CSU system with a multiethnic Raza faculty dedicated to learning and teaching about the great similarities and differences among U.S. Latin@s. This is also the only program in the CSU system primarily committed to meeting the higher education needs of the Latin@ communities of the San Francisco Bay area, California and beyond.
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SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
In order to better understand the evolution of SFSUís La Raza Studies over the past three decades, we placed the significant events in their historical context. My chronological summary was framed by five year and decade markers that helped highlight continuities and changes from cycle to cycle .
Each of the first three decades of La Raza Studies are characterized by a number of important interrelated developments involving both continuities and discontinuities. The first decade witnessed its establishment. The second decade experienced its losses and gains. And the third decade is distinguished by its paradigmatic integration.
The first decade of La Raza Studies started with some uncoordinated courses offered by a handful of traditional departments. It ended with an established Department offering a curriculum that was primarily dependent on part-time temporary faculty to teach the necessary courses to complete a Major or Minor.
The second decade of La Raza Studies was essentially characterized by significant program revisions involving both reduction and expansions in faculty and curriculum. The department was first destabilized by the reductions experienced during the early eighties, and then stabilized and expanded during the late eighties.
The third decade of La Raza Studies is characterized by its continued expansion and paradigmatic integration. The nineties witnessed the hiring, promoting and tenure-tracking of additional full-time faculty. And finally, toward the end of the nineties, La Raza Studies gained greater intellectual integration and curricular cohesion with a four dimensional model articulated as our "La Raza Studies Paradigm."
This historical synopsis purposely answers to the specific questions raised above as follows. La Raza Studies was started at SFSU in 1969-70. The initial struggle that took place was for intense recruitment of ethnic students and the development of courses that concentrated on the concerns and characteristics of local and regional ethnic communities. La Raza Studies became a department in 1975. The rationale behind the current La Raza Studies curriculum is rooted in the four (community-centered, critical, holistic and reflexive) orientations of our La Raza Studies Paradigm. The struggles with both the College and University administration over the years have been primarily over the consistent under-funding and under-staffing of the program. The administration encouraged or discouraged the growth of La Raza Studies by providing it with either more or less resources at one time or another. The evidence suggest that the greatest gains have been made during the past ten years, since Dr. Robert Corrigan became the first president committed to developing Ethnic Studies. And finally, the evidence shows that during my eight years as department chair during the 1990s, the faculty and students of La Raza Studies were significantly increased, and on the program's curriculum gained paradigmatic cohesion.
Two additional questions have to do with accreditation. Is it important for Chican@ Studies to have an accreditation body? If so, why or why not? My responses to these questions are essentially negative because the current great diversity in distinct program objectives and offerings from one campus to another makes its impossible if not impractical to standardize accreditation processes and standards. What may be gained by program standardization and accreditation no doubt will be outweighed by what may be lost in the process. On the one hand, how a state-wide accreditation or standardized assessment body might actually benefit a unique program like SFSU's La Raza Studies is not at all apparent. On the other, how it can be damaged by accreditation is much more apparent.
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I. Although this was specifically written for the Chican@ Studies Symposium sponsored by San Diego State University on October 15, 1999, it is based on an earlier version that I wrote during AY 1993-94 as part of our departmentís fifth cycle academic program review. Much gracias to my colega Dr. Roberto Haro, Director of Research at the Cesar E. Chavez Institute for Public Policy and Professor of La Raza Studies, for his insightfully critical comments on an earlier draft. Also muchas thanks to Drs. Jesus Contreras, Velia Garcia, Roberto Rivera for their substantive suggestions on the latest draft. Of course, any errors are my responsibility alone.
II. These questions were generated in connection with the 1999 Chicano\a Studies Symposium, and personally communicated by Marie Chin of Mexican American Studies at San Jose State University on June 30, 1999. I have taken the liberty of slightly revising them for the sake of simplicity.
III. During the summer of 1993, I conducted both group and individual interviews with Dr. Roberto Rivera, the founding faculty member of La Raza Studies, who developed and taught the first courses; Dr. Jesus Contreras, director of SFSUís Student/Faculty Mentorship Program, who helped drafts the first Mexican American/La Raza Studies program proposals; Dr. Anatole Anton, professor of Philosophy and faculty supporter of the Third World Liberation Frontís demands; Dr. Frank Garcia, assistant professor of Administrative and Interdisciplinary Studies , was among the first group of students recruited by the Educational Opportunity Program (EOP) in 1968, and also among the first students in La Raza Studies.; and Dr. Ted Murguia, professor emeritus of Foreign Languages and the Faculty Senate supporter of the proposal to establish the department of La Raza Studies. As might be expected there are inconsistencies and contradictions in both the qualitative and quantitative information gathered. Some may not be resolved without more detailed data.
IV. See http://www.sfsu.edu/~bulletin/current/col-eth.htm for current online description of SFSU's College of Ethnic Studies.
V. They included: "History of Latin America in the International Community"; "History of Mexico"; "Social Change in Latin America"; and "History of the Americas." In the Spring of 1968, Social Science also offered three courses of relevance to Raza: "Latin America"; "Minority Problems"; and "Problems of Spanish-speaking in Education."
VI. Dr. Carlos Muñoz summarizes the essence of the 1968 San Francisco State proposal for a La Raza Studies Program as follows: "The purpose and goal of La Raza Studies is to provide education to Chicanos and Latinos ... excluded from the educational process... The concept of education ... involves a new understanding of education [and] a powerful force in the renovation and reconstruction of the entire system of education... to provide the community with the resources to deal with the problems it faces. the primary resources ... are individuals who are sensitive to the needs of their people, creative in their approach to problem solving, and equipped with the skills necessary to serve their community." Carlos Muñoz, Jr. Youth, Identity, Power: The Chicano Movement (Verso Press, 1989) 131.
VII. This resulted in bringing 360 under-represented students (a good portion of which were Chicano/Latino to SFS during Fall 1969.
VIII. "Mexican American/Latin American Thought" (Philosophy), "English for Spanish-speaking Students" (English), "Anthropology and Social Science for EOP (Spanish-speaking) Students" (Anthropology), and "Personal, Social and Occupational Development--with sections for Spanish-speaking students" (Psychology ). These courses attracted a total of 90 students.
IX. It is important to note that this became the established pattern of relative Raza student recruitment, with primary emphasis on Latino students from the Mission and secondary on Chicano students from elsewhere in the Bay area
X. "Contemporary Spanish I," "History of La Raza," "Contemporary Movements, " "La Raza Contemporary Literature," "Raza and Law," "Community Organizing," "La Raza Art Workshop," "Creative Writing," and "Basic Conceptual Skills." These courses had a total enrollment of 292 students.
XI. "Mexican Thought" and "La Raza Values" (Philosophy), "Psychodynamic Raza Family Structure" (Psychology) and "Primitive Pre-Colombian Art" (Art). These courses enrolled 147 additional students.
XII. The available data for Spring 1970 indicate an FTE of 61.20.
XIII. "History of La Raza II," "Social Economics," "Community Organizing Field Work," "Psychodynamics of La Raza Family," "La Raza Journalism," "Basic Conceptual Skills II," and "Seminar Curriculum Development."
XIV. "Survey Mission District," and "Art & Myth of Latin America."
XV. Including a new course: "Acculturation Problems."
XVI. LRS 101 "History of La Raza I;" LRS 121 "Socio-Economics of La Raza;" LRS 125 "Psychodynamics of La Raza Experience;" LRS 161 "La Raza Values."
XVII. Arts & Cultures Concentration included the following courses: LRS 130 " Art Workshop I," LRS 131 "Art Workshop II;" LRS 133 "La Raza Journalism;" LRS 140 "Art and Mythology of Latin America;" LRS 110 "Contemporary Literature of La Raza;" LRS 160 "Mexican Thought; LRS 163 "Religion in the La Raza Experience." The Behavioral & Social Science Concentration included: LRS 102 "History of La Raza II;" LRS 105 "Contemporary Movements;" LRS 120 "Raza and Law;" LRS 124 "Psychodynamics of Raza Family;" LRS 126 "La Raza in Contemporary Technological Society;" LRS 140 "Basic Conceptual Skills I;" LRS 141 "Basic Conceptual Skills II;" LRS 163 "Religion in the La Raza Experience." The Social Services and Community Welfare Concentration included: LRS 122 "Community Organization;" LRS 123 "Community Organization Field Work;" LRS 120 " Raza and Law;" LRS 124 "Psychodynamics of Raza Family;" LRS 126 "La Raza in Contemporary Technological Society;" LRS 140 "Basic Conceptual Skills I;" LRS 141 "Basic Conceptual Skills II;" LRS 190 "Seminar on La Raza Curriculum;" LRS 191 "Teaching Methods for Spanish-speaking Students;" LRS 192 "La Raza Seminar on Education."
XVIII. See the following for some early and varied (idiosyncratic and generalized) uses of the term: Ronald D. Arroyo, "La Raza Influence in Jazz." El Grito--A Journal of Contemporary Mexican American Thought, V. 5, #4, Summer 1972: 80-84; Mario T. Garcia, "Jose Vasconcelos and La Raza" .El GritoóA Journal of Contemporary Mexican American Thought, V. 2, #4, Summer 1969: 49-51; Deluvina Hernandez, "La Raza Satellite System (An operational definition of contemporary Chicano or Mexican American social action in terms of ethnic identification with meaningful social interaction) Aztlan: Chicano Journal of the Social Sciences and the Arts, Spring 1970:13-36; Alberto Juarez, "The Emergence of el Partido de la Raza Unida" Aztlan: Chicano Journal of the Social Sciences and the Arts, Fall 1972: 177-204; Matt S. Meier and Feliciano Rivera, editors, Readings on La Raza: The Twentieth Century (New York: Hill and Wang, 1974); Wayne Moquin with Charles Van Doren, Eds. A Documentary History of the Mexican Americans (Pr5aeger Publishers, New York, 1971); Julian Nava, Ed. ¡Viva La Raza! Readings on Mexican Americans. (New York: D. Van Nostrand Co, 1973); Julian Samora, Ed. La Raza: Forgotten Americans (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame, 1966); Southwest Network of the Study Commission on Undergraduate Education and the Education of Teachers, Casa de la Raza (Hayward, CA: Bay View/Regal Printing, 1973); Stan Steiner, La Raza: Mexican Americans (New York: 1969, 1970).
XIX. Including: "History of La Raza'" "Music of La Raza," "La Raza Rural Communities," "Special Topics in La Raza Studies," "La Raza Film Workshop," and Senior Survey in La Raza Studies."
XX. Dr. Ted Murguia, then chair of Foreign Languages, assumed primary responsibility for working it through the Academic Senate
XXI. Some of the second cycle course offered in La Raza Studies that fulfilled the specialist credential requirements included: History of La Raza, La Raza Women, People of Central America, Teatro Workshop, Psychodynamics of the Raza Family, Art Workshop, Impact of Education of La Raza, Bilingual Systems and La Raza, Community Organizing, Seminar on Curriculum Development.
XXII. Including Mario Barrera (Chicano), Carlos Baron (Chilean), Fernando Cordero, (Mexican), Carlos Cordova (Salvadoran), Armida Fernandez (Salvadoran), Juan Gonzales (Chicano), Guillermo Rivas (Salvadoran), Jesus Contreras (Chicano), Stan Padilla (Chicano), Angel Arzan (Puerto Rican), Hilda Ayala (Chilean), Don Ortez (Puerto Rican), Javier Pacheco (Mexican), Laura Rodriguez (Puerto Rican), Mara Rosales (Nicaraguan), Julio Aparicio (Salvadoran), and Felix Kury (Salvadoran).
XXIII. La Raza Studies reached 111% of target in Fall 1982; 115% in Fall 1983, and 91% of target in Fall 1984.
XXIV. "Chicano Studies represent[s] the total conceptualization of the Chicano community aspirations that involve higher education. To meet these ends, the university and college systems of the State of California must act in the following basic areas: (1) admission and recruitment of Chicano students, faculty, administrators, and staff; (2) a curriculum program and an academic major relevant to the Chicano cultural and historical experience; (3) support and tutorial programs; (4) research programs; (5) publication programs; (6) community cultural and social action centers."
XXV. These included the Mission Cultural Center, Mission Economic and Cultural Association, Centro Legal de La Raza, El Tecolote newspaper, the Mexican Museum, Mission Language and Vocational School, the Real Alternatives Program, Swords to Plowshares, St. John's Tutorial Center, etc
XXVI. These included: (1) statutory requirement courses; (2) an introductory course in community study; (3) a course that focused on economic development in the barrio; (4) a course that specifically focused on the Chicano experience in the U.S.; and a course that focused on the South American experience in the U.S.
XXVII. During eight semesters between Fall 1981 and Spring 1985, only eleven La Raza Studies courses were offered four or more times; six were offered only three times; eleven courses were offered only twice; four courses only once; and eight courses were not offered at all during the early eighties.
XXVIII. La Raza Studies 410, 450, 460, 510, and 680.
XXIX. La Raza Studies 215 and 250.
XXX. La Raza Studies 400, 415, 570, and 640.
XXXI. Such comparative Ethnic Studies courses as ETHS 270 "Ethnic Studies--La Raza Experience" and ETHS 275 "Issues in La Raza History," along with ETHS 110 "Critical Thinking--Third World Perspective," which satisfy GE requirements were regularly offered by La Raza Studies.
XXXII. Between 4.0 and 5.0 FTEF.
XXXIII. Of the two faculty, either fully or partially affiliated with La Raza Studies, one held an M.A. and the other a B.A. degree (although both had additional advanced study). And of the full-time lecturers listed in the 1985-86 Bulletin one held an M.A. degree and one held a B.A. degree
XXXIV. Dr. Jake Perea (now dean of Education), who established the relationship between Raza Studies faculty and his innovative "Step-To-College (STC) program, designed to give disadvantaged high students an opportunity to take courses for college credit; and Dr. Carlos Cordova (now professor of La Raza Studies).
XXXV. Dr. Carlos Cordova, a University of SF-educated Salvadoran specialist in multiple subjects (acculturation problems, indigenismo, art history, and Central American studies); and Dr. Velia Garcia, a UC Berkeley-educated Chicana anthropologist specializing in Raza women, as we; as Chicanos and the law, were the two veteran part-time faculty appointed to tenure-track positions as a result.
XXXVI. For example, Manlio Argueta, an internationally recognized, award-winning Salvadoran writer/poet was hired as a Lecturer. The La Raza Institute, later renamed the Central American Research Institute was established as a departmental component. The department also sponsored a Symposium on Central American Immigrants and Refugees at the 26th Annual Meeting of the Pacific Coast Conference on Latin American Studies during 1988-89.
XXXVII. This unique assistant professor appointment with course time permanently assigned to La Raza Studies, was filled by Carlos Baron, a master actor and director who taught the Teatro Workshop and other classes for La Raza Studies as a part-time Lecturer for many years .
XXXVIII. For a related fuller discussion of this paradigm's application see my "SFSU's La Raza Studies Paradigm: "SFSU's La Raza Studies Paradigm: A Multidimensional Model for Multiethnic Latin@ Education Into 2YK,"presented at Taking Control of Our Destinies Ö El Desarollo de Chicana and Chicano Studies: A Symposium on Standards, Processes and Assessment for Developing and Maintaining Chicana and Chicano Studies in California, at San Jose State University on October 12, 1998.
XXXIX. Dr. Carlos Cordova and Dr. Velia Garcia joined Dr. Jose Cuellar and Dr. Roberto Rivera.
XL. See: Liliana Castillo-Speed, Latina: Women's Voices From the Borderlands, New York: Touchstone Books, 1995; Antonia Darder & Rodolfo D. Torres, The Latino Studies Reader: Culture, Economy & Society, Malden, MS: Blackwell Publishers, 1998; Carla Trujillo, Living Chicana Theory Berkeley, CA: Third Woman Press, 1998.
XLI. During this decade, the part-time lecturers include: Shay Brown, Herlinda Cancino, Myrna Chabran, Brigette Davila, Margarita Decierdo, Felix Kury, Gregorio Mora-Torres, Maria Ortiz, Armando Rendon, Laura Ruiz, Martin Valadez.
XLII. "Poverty in the Latino Community" team-taught by Urban Studies Professor Raquel Pinderhughes with Jose Cuellar.
XLIII. LARA 505 "Creative Writing" and LARA 680 "Contemporary Movements."
XLIV. The FTES data shows an overall increase in the number of students from 133.8 in Spring1989 to 164 in Fall 1993.
XLV. From 17.99 in Fall 1989 to 30.25 in Spring 1994.
XLVI. La Raza Studies is prepared to implement the following recommendations without additional resources: (1) La Raza Studies accepts the shared recommendation to discuss with the Foreign Language Department and help initiate curricular solutions to meet the needs of English-dominant and Spanish-dominant bilingual students who want to improve their Spanish communication skills. Toward that end, La Raza Studies has re-introduced LARA 101 into the curriculum beginning Spring 1998, and plans to offer LARA 102 during Spring 1999. (2) La Raza Studies accepts the shared recommendation to not pursue changing three-unit courses to four ?unit courses, although still not completely convinced that this change creates more problems than solutions. (3) La Raza Studies agrees to ensure strict enforcing of the policy not permitting upper division courses to be taken before the required lower division courses (particularly Introduction to La Raza Studies) are completed, beginning Fall 1998. It agrees to articulate, operationally define, and implement criteria to resolve the ambiguity regarding any prerequisites for upper division courses. (4) As a top priority, La Raza Studies agrees revise course listing (numbers, titles and descriptions) to accurately include and reflect the courses actually taught in the last ten years. (5) La Raza Studies accepts the goal of offering at least one section of the seven core courses every semester, and all other general education and elective courses at least once every year, beginning Fall 1998. (6) La Raza Studies accepts the UIC recommendation to explore the possibility of establishing an integrative course (theory and research) relevant to Ethnic Studies in general or the place of La Raza Studies within Ethnic Studies. (7) La Raza Studies accepts the UIC recommendation to explore the possible opportunities for outside electives for the Major. (8) La Raza Studies accepts the shared recommendation to help improve the existing comparative M.A. in Ethnic Studies program, and formally establish an emphasis in La Raza Studies within that program, and will start working toward that end beginning Fall 1998. (9) La Raza Studies accepts the recommendation to meet with students to find meaningful ways to encourage more student involvement. (10) La Raza Studies accepts the recommendation that all faculty serve as advisors, keeping and maintaining records for advising sessions. (11) La Raza Studies accepts the UIC recommendation to encourage non-Raza students (along with Raza students) to choose a major or minor in La Raza Studies, as part of a fine-tuned comprehensive three-pronged recruitment and retention strategy. (12) La Raza Studies appreciates the APRC support for Departmentís recommendations to (a) Provide orientations for potential majors and minors. (b) Offer graduation workshops. (c) Use of electronic recruitment and retention mechanism, such as the World Wide Web. (d) Support a strong Majors and Minors Association. (e) Provide scholarship funds for Majors and Minors. (f) Use Office of Development resources for generating gifts and grants to scholarship and other outreach activities. (13) La Raza Studies appreciates the APRC commendation for its continued commitment to revising all courses to reflect greater focus to gender characteristics and concerns. The following is a listing in priority order of the most pressing resources or other needs in order to implement the remaining recommendations. (1) La Raza Studies appreciates the strong recommendation that a mechanism be put in place to: (a) help establish a better working relationship between the Department and the College; (b) adjudicate Department claims of unfair treatment, prejudice and bias in resource allocation; and (c) to facilitate La Raza Studies faculty discussions with University and College Administrators about the Departmentís goals and objectives and the amount of support La Raza Studies can expect to realize it mission. Toward this most pressing end, La Raza Studies requests the allocation of one-time only money to contract two outside experts: (a) an mediator to help establish this mechanism; and (b) an audit or to conduct a formal accounting of La Raza Studies funds over the past ten years. (2) La Raza Studies needs a one-time allocation to pay for a consultant to help the Department develop a better integrated system of student learning evaluation, and related potentials and limitations in the curriculum and faculty assessments. (3) La Raza Studies accepts the recommendation to explore the possibility of joint appointments to satisfy its pressing curricular needs (one for a specialist in behavioral and social and one for a specialist in bilingual education). Toward this pressing end, the Department requests the allocation of one full-time faculty equivalent to split between the two during 1998-1999, and a second FTE to split for a joint appointment with a Health and Human services specialist and a comparative Raza literature specialist. (4) La Raza Studies accepts the strong recommendation that a mechanism for resource allocation be set in place to address the Departmentís need for (a) administrative assistance .20 (12 months) for department chair. (b) clerical assistance at .60 (12 months) for Department faculty. (c) Research assistance at .60 (12 months) for Department faculty. (d) Graduate teaching assistance (five per semester) for Department faculty. (e) La Raza Studies accepts the strong recommendation that a mechanism be set in place to allocate resources to meet the Departmentís need for specific software, computer and other equipment needed for effective teaching, research and community service learning activities. (f) La Raza Studies accepts the external reviewerís strong recommendation that the administration assist the Department and College find a way to address the a Departmentës need for a resource and tutoring room. There are no APRC recommendations the Department disagrees with or does not wish to see implemented. But there are a number of recommendations made by the Department that the APRC and others did not specifically address. La Raza Studies plans to implement these anyway, including: (1) Revise LARA 400 as "History and Heritage of Mexican Americans" (2) Revise LARA 101 and 102 as "Spanish for Bilinguals I and II." (3) Reactivate and offer the special topics/senior seminar at least every Spring semester, beginning AY 1999-2000. (4) Revise major to require LARA 410 "La Raza Womenís Seminar" and "La Raza Studies Research Methods." (5) Develop new elective courses as needed. (6) Reduce the total number of required units or the Major to 39 or 40. (7) Develop better and more detailed syllabi. (8) Develop a better system of student evaluation of curriculum and faculty. (9) Increase training and use of graduate teaching assistants. (11) Increase use of available tutors. (12) Increase use of small group work in courses. (13) Increase of multimedia teaching resources. A delineation of alternatives the Department proposes should resources not be forthcoming.&ning Chicana Theory Berkeley, CA: Third Woman Press, 1998.
XLI. During this decade, the part-time lecturers include: Shay Brown, Herlinda Cancino, Myrna Chabran, Brigette Davila, Margarita Decierdo, Felix Kury, Gregorio Mora-Torres, Maria Ortiz, Armando Rendon, Laura Ruiz, Martin Valadez.
XLII. "Poverty in the Latino Community" team-taught by Urban Studies Professor Raquel Pinderhughes with Jose Cuellar.
XLIII. LARA 505 "Creng joint appointments of existing tenured La Raza Studies faculty and other departments (e.g. Professor Cuellar with Music; Professor Rivera with Humanities, Professor Carrillo with Political Science), and vice-versa (e.g. Professor Pinderhughes of Urban Studies, Professor Calderon of Spanish, and Professor Glugoski of Social Work). These free up existing resources for additional joint appointments.
XLVII. These courses, although central to the Major/Minor programs, were taught by part-time lecturers.
XLVIII. These were also mostly taught by part-time lecturers for the past 20 years.
XLIX. Carlos Cordova, EdD, Jose Cuellar, Ph.D, and Roberto Haro, Ph.D.
L. Teresa Carrillo, Ph.D., Velia Garcia, Ph.D. and Roberto Rivera, Ph.D.
LI. Nancy Mirabal, ABD, and Alejandro Murguia, MFA.
LII. Brigette Davila, JD, and Felix Kury, MFCC.
LIII. Three Ph.D.s in Behavioral and Social Sciences: two anthropologists from UCLA and UCB (Cuellar and Garcia, respectively) and one political scientist from Stanford (Carrillo); two Ph.D.s in the Humanities: one historian from Michigan (Mirabal), one historian of consciousness from UCSC (Rivera), and two Ed.D.s in Education from USF (Cordova and Haro); one attorney from Boalt Hall (Davila); one MFA in w0riting from SFSU, and one M.A. in marriage, family and child counseling from SFSU.
LIV. Nancy Mirabal, M.A.
LV. Carlos Cordova, Ed.D. and Roberto Rivera, Ph.D.
LVI. Teresa Carrillo, Ph.D., Jose Cuellar, Ph.D., Velia Garcia, Ph.D., and Roberto Haro, Ed.D.
LVII. G. Alejandro Murguia, M.F.A.
LVIII. Teresa Carrillo, Jose Cuellar, and Alejandro Murguia.
LIX. Professors Cordova, Cuellar, and Haro, associate professor Rivera, assistant professor Murguia, and senior lecturer Felix Kury.
LX. Associate professors Carrillo and Garcia, assistant professor Mirabal, and senior lecturer Brigette Davila.
LXI. Currently, the 45 required units for the B.A. in La Raza Studies include six required core courses (LARA 215 "Introduction to La Raza Studies," LARA 435 "Oral History and Traditions," LARA 680 "La Raza Community Organizing;" two of these three LARA 415 "Souci-economics of La Raza," LARA 570 "Philosophy of La Raza," LARA 640 "Sociology of La Raza;" and either LARA 410 "La Raza Women Seminar" or LARA 510 "Psychodynamics of La Raza Family"), five courses in either the Arts and Culture or the Behavioral and Social Sciences areas of emphasis (see below), two elective courses within the major, plus two elective courses from other disciplines. The 24 required units for the La Raza Studies Minor includes the same six basic core courses as above, plus two elective courses upon advisement.
The Arts and Culture electives include: LARA 101 "Contemporary Spanish," LARA 110 "La Raza Thought and Expression I," LARA 225 "La Raza Visual Images," LARA 230 "Introduction Contemporary La Raza Literature," LARA 260 "Art Workshop of La Raza," LARA 320 "Art History of La Raza," LARA 425 "Contemporary Music Folklore," LARA 490 "La Raza Teatro Workshop," LARA 501 "Latin America: National Period," LARA 505 "Creative Writing Workshop," LARA 525 "La Raza Art Workshop II," LARA 530 "La Raza and the Media," LARA 533 "Women in Latin America," LARA 535 "La Raza Journalism," LARA 560 "Contemporary Literature of La Raza," LARA 570 "Philosophy of La Raza," LARA 605 "Bilingual Writing Workshop," LARA 685 "Projects in Teaching La Raza Studies," LARA 698 "La Raza Senior Seminar."
The Behavioral and Social Science area of emphasis includes: LARA 110 "La Raza Thought and Expression," LARA 210 "Latino Health Care Perspectives," LARA 280 "Acculturation Problems of La Raza," LARA 410 "La Raza Women Seminar," LARA 415 "Socioeconomics of La Raza," LARA 450 "Indigenismo," LARA 460 "Central Americans in the U.S.," LARA 500 "Community Mental Health," LARA 501 "Latin America: National Period," LARA 510 "Psychodynamics of La Raza Family," LARA 530 "La Raza and the Media," LARA 533 "Women in Latin America," LARA 570 "Philosophy of La Raza," LARA 580 "Impact of Education on La Raza," LARA 640 "Sociology of La Raza," LARA 670 "The United States-Mexico Connection," LARA 685 "Projects in Teaching La Raza Studies," LARA 698 "La Raza Senior Seminar." See http://www.sfsu.edu/~bulletin/current/programs/laraza.htm for SFSU's La Raza Studies current online description.
LXII. See Elihu Carranza, Pensamientos Chicanos: A Cultural Revolution (California Book Co. 1969). Juan Flores, Divided Borders: Essays on Puerto Rican Identity (Houston: Arte Publico Press, 1993). Jovita Gonzalez, Life on the Thorn ed. Jose Limon (Houston: Arte Publico Press, 1997). Ernesto Galarza, Spiders in the House, Workers in the Fields (Santa Barbara: McNally & Loftin, 1964). Carey McWilliams, North From Mexico: Spanish-speaking People of the United States (2nd Edition, Greenwood Press, 1969). Americo Paredes, With His Pistol in His Hand: A Border Ballad and Its Hero (Austin: University of Texas, 1958). Armando Rendon, Chicano Manifesto (Macmillan Company, 1971). Octavio Romano-V. "The Anthropology and Sociology of the Mexican-American." El Grito: A Journal of Contemporary Mexican American Thought 2 (Fall, 1968) 13-26. George Sanchez, Forgotten People: A Study of New Mexicans (Albuquerque: C. Horn, 1967). Adina de Zavala History and Legends of the Alamo and other Missions in and around San Antonio ed. Richard Flores (Houston: Arte Public Press, 1998).
LXIII. See Rodolfo Acuña, Occupied America: A History of Chicanos (2nd Edition, New York: Harper & Row, 1981). Frank Bonilla, et al. eds., Borderless Border: U.S. Latino, Latin Americans, and the Paradox of Interdependence (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998). Ana Castillo, Massacre of The Dreamers: Essays on Xicanisma (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1994). Juan Gomez-Quiñones, Chicano Politics: Reality & Promise 1940-1990 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1990). Deluvina Hernandez, Mexican American Challenges to a Sacred Cow (UCLA Mexican American Cultural Center, 1970). Joan Moore and Raquel Pinderhughes, In the Barrio: Latinos and the Underclass Debate (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1993). Renato Rosaldo, Culture and Truth: TheRemapping of Social Analysis (Boston: Beacon Press, 1989). Carla Trujillo, ed., Living Chicana Theory (Berkeley: Third Woman Press, 1998).
LXIV. These focus on those basic qualitative and quantitative reasoning skills involved in the analyses of problems and solution, and the synthesis of conclusions; and those skills involved in criticizing, constructing, deconstructing and understanding arguments about the major issues of our time with materials reflective of United States La Raza experiences.
LXV. The elective course considered our critical orientation capstone course in La Raza Studies.
LXVI. Including one male philosopher of Guatemalan descent; one female historian of Cuban descent; one male multicultural educator and one male marriage, family & child counselor of Salvadoran descent; one female and one male anthropologist, one female political scientist, one male creative writer, one female attorney and one male educational administrator of Mexican descent.
LXVII. That is, all full-time La Raza Studies faculty have collectively committed themselves to gather and include information in their courses by and about disciplines and ethnic groups other than their own. It is also important to recognize a significant amount of prior cross-ethnic and cross-disciplinary work in our facultyís individual and collective background. Assistant professor Alejandro Murguia, Chicano creative writer, received the American Book Award for his The Southern Front (Bilingual Press, 1990), a fictionalized account of his experiences as a member of the international Sandinista brigade fighting in Nicaragua. He was also recently honored with a prestigious honorable mention from Cubaís Casa de Las Americas for his bilingual writings. Assistant professor Nancy Mirabal, Cuban American historian also conducts research on Dominican and Puerto Rican women in the U.S, and teaches Chicano history. Senior lecturer Felix Kury, Salvadoran counselor, directs our Cuba Education Project, which he co-founded with associate professor Roberto Rivera. Associate professor Theresa Carrillo, a Chicana political scientist, has served as faculty guide with the Cuba Education Project which takes a select group of community organizing students on a service learning tour to Cuba every winter session. Professor Carlos Cordova, Salvadoran multicultural educator, conducts research on the migration of Central Americans in the US, while also studying santeria, the Afrocentric religion in the Cuba. And I conducted my Master's fieldwork on folk medicine and beliefs in the highlands of Guatemala; and I, a Chicano anthropologist, am currently conducting a comparative research project on U.S. Latino music.
LXVIII. La Raza Studies recently proposed several changes in the Major and Minor requirements: 1) a reduction of total required units from 45 to 39 to facilitate the timely completion of single and double Majors; (2) requiring Majors to take all, and Minors to take at least three, of following core courses: LARA 215 "Introduction to La Raza Studies," and LARA 680 "Community Organizing," plus LARA 410 "La Raza Women" and LARA 435 "Oral History and Traditions;" and (3) allowing Majors and Minors to satisfy their distribution requirements by selecting courses from four (Arts & Humanities, History, Behavioral & Social Sciences, and Ethnic Studies) instead of two concentrations (see above).
LXIX. C. Wright Mills, The Sociological Imagination (New York, Oxford University Press, 1959, reprint 1971).
LXX. For an early ethnogerontological discussion of this dilemma see my "Insiders and Outsiders in Minority Aging." Minority Aging Research: Old Issues--New Approaches ed. E. Percil Stanford (San Diego: Campanille Press, 1979) 67-77.
LXXI. Oscar Zeta Acosta, Autobiography of a Brown Buffalo (San Francisco: Straight Arrow, 1972, reprint Ed. New York: Penguin, 1989). Gloria Anzaldua, Borderlands/La Frontera--The New Mestiza (San Francisco: Spinsters/Aunt Lute, 1987). Jose Antonio Burciaga, Spilling the Beans: Loteria Chicana (Santa Barbara: Joshua Odell Editions, 1995). Ruth Behar, Translated Woman: Crossing the Border with Esperanza's Story (Boston: Beacon Press, 1993). Susan Ferriss and Ricardo Sandoval, The Fight in the Fields: Cesar Chavez and the Farmworkers Movement (New York: Harcourt Brace & Co., 1997). Ernesto Galarza, Barrio Boy: The Story of a Boy's Acculturation (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1971). Mario T. Garcia, Memories of Chicano History: The Life and narrative of Bert Corona (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994). Richard Griswold del Castillo and Richard A. Garcia, Cesar Chavez: A Triumph of Spirit (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1995). John C. Hammerback and Richard J. Jensen, The Rhetorical Career of César Chávez (College Station: Texas A & M Press, 1998). Ruben Martinez, The Other Side: Fault Lines, Guerrilla Saints and the True Heart of Rock'n'Roll (New York: Verso Press, 1992). Rigoberta Menchu, I Rigoberta Menchu: An Indian Woman in Guatemala design, Elizabeth. Burgos-Dubray, trans. Ann Wright (New York: Verso, 1987). Genaro M. Padilla, My History, Not Yours: The Formation of Mexican American Biography (Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1993). Ramón "Tianguis" Perez, Diary of an Undocumented Immigrant trans. Dick J. Reavis (Houston: Arte Publico Press, 1991). Luis Rodriguez, Always Running, La Vida Loca: Gang Days in L.A. (Willimantic, CN: Cubstone Press, 1993). Fred Ross, Conquering Goliath: Cesar Chavez at the Beginning (Keene, CA: El Taller Grafico Press, 1989). Earl Shorris, Latinos: Biography of the People. New York: Avon Books, 1992). Chris Strachwitz with James Nicolopulos, Lydia Mendoza: A Family Autobiography (Houston: Arte Publico Press, 1993). Piri Thomas, Down these Mean Streets (New York: Vintage, 1967). Victor Villaseñor, Rain of Gold (New York: Bantam Doubleday, 1992).
LXXII. Ralph Cintron, Angel's Town: Chero Ways, Gang Life, and Rhetorics of the Everyday (Boston: Beacon Press, 1997). Jose Saldívar, Culture Matters: Remapping American Cultural Studies (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997). Carlos Velez-Ibañez, Border Visions: Mexican Cultures of the Southwest United States (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1997).
LXXIII. The Mission Cultural Center, Mission Health Center, Mission Economic and Cultural Association, Centro Legal de La Raza, El Tecolote newspaper, the Mexican Museum, Mission Language and Vocational School, the Real Alternatives Program, Swords to Plowshares, St. John's Tutorial Center, the Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund, and the United Farm Workers.
LXXIV. In large part, this results from a concerted departmental effort led by Felix Kury to organize and coordinate CSL programs in three Bay Area institutions: University of San Francisco, City College of San Francisco along with SFSU.
LXXV. As noted earlier.
LXXVI. At its meeting of April 21, 1992, the Academic Senate approved the following mission and goals for San Francisco State University:
The mission of San Francisco State University is to create and maintain an environment for learning that promotes respect for and appreciation of scholarship, freedom, human diversity, and the cultural mosaic of the City of San Francisco and the Bay Area; to promote excellence in instruction and intellectual accomplishment; and to provide broadly accessible higher education for residents of the region and state, as well as the nation and world. To fulfill its mission, the University is committed to the following goals:
* attracting, retaining, and graduating a highly diverse student body;
* providing disciplinary and interdisciplinary liberal arts and professional education that is academically rigorous and intellectually challenging;
* providing curricula that reflect all dimensions of human diversity, and that encourage critical thinking and social and cultural awareness;
* recruiting, retaining, and supporting a diverse faculty whose teaching demonstrates an active engagement with their individual fields of study and whose creative and scholarly work is an extension of the classroom, laboratory, or studio;
*employing a staff and administration reflecting the diversity of the community and the values of the campus;
* fostering a collegial and cooperative intellectual environment that includes recognition and appreciation of differing viewpoints and promotes academic freedom within the University community; and
* serving the communities with which its students and faculty are engaged.
For more see Academic Mission and Goals for San Francisco State University online http://www.sfsu.edu/~senate/S92-176.htm
LXXVII. See SFSU's Office of CSL online http://www.sfsu.edu/~urbins/projects/ocsl/ocsl.html)
LXXVIII. La Raza Studies received the following CSL Curriculum Development Awards since 1996. Associate professor Teresa Carrillo received faculty release time to incorporate CSL components dealing with issues of educational policy and equity, and the social, political and cultural presence of Chicanas/U.S. Latinas within several existing courses, including LARA 410 "La Raza Women" and LARA 660 "U.S. Latino Politics." Professor Jose Cuellar, received an award for a department-wide effort to incorporate CSL across La Raza course curriculum, including such courses as LARA 215 "Introduction to La Raza Studies," LARA 276 "U.S. Government & Constitution-La Raza Prespective," LARA 376 "History of La Raza," LARA 430 "La Raza and the Law," and LARA 640 "Sociology of La Raza." Associate professor Velia García received a CSL grant to create a prison service learning component for LARA 430 "La Raza and the Law: Race, Crime, and Justice." Lecturer Brigitte Davila was granted an award to create a community service lab component (focused on issues of Latino political empowerment while addressing topics such as voting rights, immigration, affirmative action and civil rights) for La Raza 276, "U.S. Government and Constitutional Ideals." Senior lecturer Felix Kury received a CSL grant to revise LARA 690 "La Raza Community Field Work."
LXXIX. LARA 210 "Latino Health Care Perspectives," LARA 410 "La Raza Women," LARA 296 "U.S. Government and Constitution--La Raza Perspective," LARA 396 "History of La Raza," LARA 435 "Oral History and Traditions," LARA 430 "La Raza and the Law," LARA 500 "Community Mental Health," LARA 590 "Environmental Justice," LARA 660 "U.S. Latino Politics," LARA 680 "Community Organizing" LARA 690 "La Raza Community Field Work."
LXXX. Associate professor Teresa Carrillo and senior lecturer Felix Kury are developing a set of interrelated CSL courses that will take students to Mexico City and then Havana for comparative studies of community organizing and social movements.
LXXXI. Led by Teresa Carrillo, Nancy Mirabal and Brigitte Davila.
LXXXIII. I took a leave from my position to accept a visiting professorship at UC Berkeley.
LXXXIV. including Computer Sciences, the Educational Opportunity Program, American Indian Studies, Asian American Studies, Black Studies, and the Ethnic Studies undergraduate and graduate programs; Gerontology, History, Humanities, International Relations, Interdisciplinary Studies in Education, Labor Studies, Latin American Studies, Liberal Studies, Political Science, Social Work Education, Theater Arts, Women Studies, Urban Studies; the Center for Enhancement of Teaching/Advising, the César E. Chavez Institute for Public Policy, and the Urban Institute.
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