Artists Exploring Motion Interfaces

Stephen Wilson, Conceptual/Information Arts Program, SFSU
(**Note text and images derived from artist sites at links provided)



David Rokeby     http://homepage.mac.com/davidrokeby/home.html


Very Nervous System
the movements of one's body create sound and/or music
roikey
(Perception is) The Master of Space

String, hanging from the ceiling at 1/2 meter intervals, was used to establish the edges of the perceptual field of the system's camera and its shadows...Sounds included heartbeats and breathing that increased pace with continued interaction, pebbles and waves, wind, footsteps recorded within the space. As one approached the camera at the apex of the two walls of string, the intensity of the interaction increased. Certain sounds were mapped to specific areas of the space. At the "European Media Arts Festival", the space had a number of columns in it. Behind the most dominant column a behaviour was set up that generated the sound of breaking glass only if someone passed behind the column from the point of view of the camera.
(Perception is) The Master of Space


Measure
The actual installation involves a ticking clock suspended in the middle of the installation space, and an interactive acoustic processing system triggered and controlled by movements around the clock. The clock's ticking is amplified and fed through an acoustic processor whose parameters are modified by the dynamics of gestures made by the gallery visitors in the proximity of the clock. Initially, with no movement, the straight sound of the clock is heard. Small, initial movements cause slight disturbances in the rate of flow of time, as represented by the ticking. Slightly higher levels of movement bring the ticking into self-synchopation, and beyond. Significant movement in the presents of the clock causes radical mutations of the ticking sound as the sound processor simulates the acoustic effect of the walls collapsing in and rushing out around the dynamics of the gesture. At its extreme, the measured pace of the ticking falls apart into a chaos out of which a resonant tone emerges, the pure expression of the virtual space's acoustics, under the stimulus of the by now obscured ticking. After the visitor(s) have left, the clock settles back into its steady ticking.
Measure
measure
Petite Terre
the work is made up of a small natural environment (current version is about 30" across). Four small speakers are hidden under the leaves of the vegetation which covers most of the surface of this world. This world is in fact an island surrounded completely by water. The world is inhabited by the sounds of a variety of frogs, birds, insects, etc. Each creature has a behaviour defined by a computer program which determines when, how and why each one vocalises. Each behaviour is subtley different so that the mix of sounds varies widely depending on the interactive parameters. In this initial version, the creatures respond to the movements of people around the installation as seen from above by a video camera and motion sensing system. Most of the animals are timid, so that the approach of a person will most likely result in the sounds of things scuttling across pebbles and splashing into the water. If the person who approaches remains still, one or another of the families of frogs will begin singing to each other tentatively, then more openly, other families, and some birds joining in until the small world seems populated at an almost amazonian density. The sounds themselves however remain relatively small, in the same scale as the world
Petite Terre

Silicon Remembers Carbon (Version 1)
a large video image projected down onto a bed of sand on the floor of the installation space. Visitors' movements subtly affect the mixing and dissolving of video images and sounds. Each visitor leaves traces which affect the experience of the work for later visitors. The installation presents a fragile illusion, a consensual hallucination, requiring the visitors' participation for its continuation, through their body movements, a willingness to blur their eyes slightly to hide the scan-lines, and their ability to project depth into the flat image. They are offered a range of possibilities from sustaining the illusion by creating and maintaining distance, to dispelling it by stepping into the illusionary space itself. For the artist, the visitors' movement through this range of possibilities represents a more important interaction than the direct interaction with the technical system itself.
Silicon Remembers Carbon

Silicon Remembers Carbon (Version 2)
The live mix between the two video sources is defined by a third video stream composed in real-time by a second computer. This mix-defining stream is made up in various ways of cross-frame dissolves (as in the first version) and silhouettes. The silhouettes are derived from the images of 4 video cameras positioned one on each side of the projection as though looking over the shoulders of people standing around the image. The sand/screen is lit with infra-red light by 4 infrared illuminators and the cameras have infrared-pass filters. Thus the sand is seen by the cameras a brightly lit back-drop against which people's shadows are dark. Instead of casting shadows of darkness, people cast shadows of video, cutting the hidden layer of video into the visible one.
Silicon Remembers Carbon

60
The camera was mounted above the entry way so that passages along the hall stimulated the regions from the top down, if people were leaving and from the bottom up, if people were entering. Each region controlled the amplitude of one sinewave. Each sinewave was tuned to a multiple of 60 Hertz, so that each sine was in a harmonic relationship to the buzz of the lights. The amount of movement in each zone controlled the amplitude of a low frequency sine wave that in turn controlled the amplitude of the tone associated with that region. The rates of the low frequency waves were mathematically related to the actual frequency of the tone. The overall volume of the piece was usually quite low, so that the harmonics blended into the buzz of the lights, and seemed to rise out of it. If someone stimulated the system for some time, the overall amplitude would increase so that more focussed exploration was possible
60

Watch

In "Watch", public sections of the exhibition gallery or of exterior public space, separate from my installation, are watched by surveillance cameras. These images are processed in real-time and projected onto the wall of the installation space.

The video processes both present distortions of the perception of time. In one, the only things visible are things that are standing still. The effect is that of long-exposure photography, except that the image is truly live, changing subtly at every video frame. People that are moving are blurs or fogs across the image. People that are still are seen clearly.

The second process is the conceptual inverse of the first. People are only visible if they are in motion. They float as outlines of themselves in a dimensionless black void, and disappear again as soon as they are still.

The two images are projected with the first image beside the second, and with the second image flipped horizontally to mirror the first image.

There is the sound of a watch, a clock, a heartbeat and light breathing.
Watch

Giver of Names
The installation includes an empty pedestal, a video camera, a computer system and a small video projection. The camera observes the top of the pedestal. The installation space is full of "stuff"... objects of many sorts. The gallery visitor can choose an object or set of objects from those in the space, or anything they might have with them, and place them on the pedestal. When an object is placed on the pedestal, the computer grabs an image. It then performs many levels of image processing (outline analysis, division into separate objects or parts, colour analysis, texture analysis, etc.) These processes are visible on the life-size video projection above the pedestal. In the projection, the objects make the transition from real to imaged to increasingly abstracted as the system tries to make sense of them.
The Giver of Names
giver
Universal Translator
The interface for this work is a microphone with a micro video camera embedded in its head so that the camera looks directly at the mouth from very close up. The sound of the voice and video of the moving lips are captured by computers. These sounds and images provide most of the content, and are used to control most of the interactivity of the work. A computer monitor faces the interactor and displays the processed mouth images.
Universal Translator

Watched and Measured
surveillance cameras observe the threshold between the Wing and the rest of the Museum. The images from these cameras are digitally processed in real-time by software which I wrote specifically for the project. The resulting altered images are presented by three large video projections. A computer searches through this live video feed for the presence of the kinds of things that I designed it to be interested in: things that are moving, things that are still but are not part of the building, and things that might be human heads. Its interests are reflected in the projections. Sometimes everything that is still disappears, leaving only moving people visible in a blue-tinted void. At others people who are moving dissolve and blur into invisibility. Only the building and those visitors standing or waiting can be seen. Occasionally, the system selects a human head to investigate. Its digital zoom frames the head, tracking it with a mechanical precision as it analyses it further. These close-ups are collected in grid displaying a slow-motion replay of the 20 most recently investigated heads.
Watched and Measured


Shock Absorber
 a live feed from broadcast television
separate it into two parts in real time.

One part contains all the movements, edits and high frequency visual stimulation. Changes and movements are visible, but anything constant in the image is not seen.  

The other part contains everything that is left over after the movements and changes are removed. In this case, a cut becomes a slow cross-fade. Moving objects blur into invisibility. Cuts are smoothed over, with multiple shots bleeding into each other. Newscasters' bodies are solid, but their faces (or at least their lips and eyes) are blur.
Shock Absorber

Seen
an extrapolation on "Watch", using the whole of Piazza San Marco in Venice as the source material. The installation is made up of 4 video projections whose video material are calculated live from a single video source. (Due to the extraordinary expense of running a live satellite feed from the piazza to the Canadian Pavillion on the Biennale graound, I recorded about 30 minutes of material and burned it to DVD to be the source.) The first and fourth projections are effectively colour versions of "Watch", in which what is moving is separated from that which is still. In this case, what was moving were the people milling about the piazza and the famous San Marco pigeons. What was still was the architecture of the piazza, and the kiosks selling souvenirs and corn with which to feed the pigeons. The middle two projections offer different perspectives on the patterns of flow through the Piazza. The blue projection (2nd) takes the first image (motion) as a source and feeds it back on itself at a delay of 1/2 a second. This turns each individual person into a Muybridge motion study, or a procession of themselves. Areas which experienced the greateest density of traffic in the recent past would be quite densly packed and less travelled areas would be sparser, providing a kind of probability plot of activities in the space. This video stream has a strangely archaic appearance, looking very 17th century for some reason. The third projection traces the recent trajectory of each moving thing in the Piazza in a colour gradient estqablishing the direction of movement of each thing. The processing was performed at full video resolution, meaning that every pedestrian and pigeon on Piazza San Marco left a trace. Flying pigeons drew the arc of their flight, running pedestrians keft trails showing their dodges and turns as they wended their way through the crowds. The walking pigeons produced patterns looking rather like arabic lettering as they chased after the scattered corn
Seen


Taken
 a surveillance installation that provides two readings of the activities in the gallery space. A large gallery space has one wall taken up by two very large projections. On the left hand side, gallery visitors are extracted from the ground of the gallery floors and walls, and then looped back onto themselves at 20 second intervals. The result is that every action that has taken place in the gallery since the computer was turned on occurs together on the screen, repeating every 20 seconds. The image stream, provides a kind of seething chaos of activity that can be read both as a statistical plot of gallery activities (where do most people stand to regard the piece? Do they move around?) and as a record of each act of each visitor. The image is densely social, deeply layered an dchaotic. The right hand side is a cooler catalog of the gallery visitors. Individual visitors are tracked within the space. Their heads are zoomed in on, and adjectives are attributed to them (i.e. 'unsuspecting', 'complicit', 'hungry'). These individual head shots are collected as a set of the last 200 visitors and presented as a matrix of 100 or occasionally all 200 shots, moving in slow motion. This side is analytical and highly ordered and rather threatening.
Taken

Cheap Imitation
an homage to Marcel Duchamp. Duchamp was of course an inveterate re-user of existing works of art. In "Cheap Imitation", I have cut up Duchamp's "Nude Descending a Staircase" into the several hundred facets that make up the work. The faceted image is projected apporoximately life size (such that the nude is life-size) on a wall of the gallery. Each facet is interactive, ermerging from darkness only when there is movement in front of that facet's exact location in the painting. If there is no movement, the projection is all black. Small gestures like hand movements will draw one or two fragments into visibility. Full body movement across the whole painting reveals the entire work.

As a result, the work can be explored in a dynamic way consistent with Duchamp's desire to represent the dynamics of the movement of the nude in the act of decending the staircase. Interestingly, activating small sections fo the work sometimes results in images that echo the mechanical/organic feel and sparse layout of Duchamp's masterwork, "The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even".
Cheap Imitation


Sorting Daemon
surveys its environment and uses the resulting images as the primary content of the work. In this specific case, the system looks out onto the street, panning, tilting and zooming, looking for moving things that might be people. When it finds what it thinks might be a person, it removes the person's image from the background.

The extracted person is then divided up according to areas of similar colour. The resulting swatches of colour are then placed within the arbitrary context of the composite image projected
Sorting Daemon




Monika Fleischmann, Wolfgang Strauss


Rigid Waves
a hidden camera takes a picture of the viewer and transfers his image to a projection screen that resembles a framed mirror. The closer the viewer approaches, the more unrealistic the image becomes. The movements of the viewer distort the images – they are delayed, speeded up, manipulated, fragmented or frozen. The viewer cannot pin down his digital twin. The asynchrony of real time and image time distances the viewer from his digital image and enables him to see himself in different guises – fragmented, fractured or from behind. Acoustic signals are linked to the image processing system and mark the position from which the user can influence his computergenerated image using gestures and changes of position. Rigid Waves uses interactive media technology to represent the separation of body and perception alluded to by Echo and Narcissist
Rigid Waves





Paul Garrin


Border Patrol  (with David Rokeby)
Deals with the conflict between technology as instrument of control and power on one side and a public controlled by technology on the other side. ... Autonomous Object Tracking System with Robotic Cameras  - Stationary cameras function as visual sensors to the VNSII interface by David Rokeby that controls the positioning of robotic "snipercams" which lock on to moving targets (the viewer's heads) and "fire shots" (audio of gunshots). The viewer sees his/her image on video monitors, set into the face of the metal wall, in the crosshairs of the snipercam. Each of the 4 autonomous snipercams can track up to 32 individual objects, and monitor their status: scanning ­ looks for target tracking ­ found target lock ­ engage target fire ­ shoot target verify ­ check for movement if no movement go on to next check again for movement after x duration, end time to live cycle.


Yuppie Ghetto with Watchdog
Dogs follow the visitor who is tracked with video to keep them from intervening in an event beyond the fence





Rafael Lozano-hemmer     http://www.fundacion.telefonica.com/at/rlh/eproyecto.html
STANDARDS AND DOUBLE STANDARDS
an interactive installation that consists of fifty fastened belts that are suspended at waist height from servo motors on the ceiling of the exhibition room. Controlled by a computerized tracking system, the belts rotate automatically to follow the public, turning their buckles slowly to face passers-by. When several people are in the room their presence affects the entire group of belts, creating chaotic patterns of interference. Non-linear behaviours emerge such as turbulence, eddies and relatively quiet regions. One of the stated aims of this piece is to visualize complex dynamics, turning a condition of pure surveillance into an unpredictable connective system.

FREQUENCY AND VOLUME
installation consists of between 100 and 800 square metres of projected shadows which allow participants to scan the radio spectrum of the city with their bodies. As a shadow appears it tunes any radio frequency between 150kHz to 1.5GHz based on its position monitored by a video tracking system. The size of the shadow controls the volume gain of the specific audio channel. We can have 16 frequencies tuned simultaneously and the resulting sound environment is a composition controlled by people's movements

BODY MOVIES
 
transforms public space with 400 to 1,800 square metres of interactive projections. Thousands of photo portraits taken on the streets of the cities where the project is exhibited are shown using robotically controlled projectors. However, the portraits only appear inside the projected shadows of local passers-by, whose silhouettes measure between 2 to 25 metres high, depending on how far people were from the powerful light sources placed on the floor of the square. A custom-made computer vision tracking system triggers new portraits as old ones are revealed. With the assistance of 6 developers  See also Two Orgins, Body Movies, RE-Positioning Fear, Displaced Emperors

THE TRACE
 a telepresence installation that invites two participants in remote sites to share the same telematic space. The piece consists of light vectors, sounds and graphics that respond to the movement of the participants. Two interactive stations are needed for the piece; these are interconnected with a normal ISDN digital line so they can be in the same exhibition hall, on either side of a city or in different cities. Collaboration with Will Bauer.






George Legrady   http://www.georgelegrady.com/
 SensingSpeakingSpace
A large projected abstract image and a six channel ambient sound composition are continuously changing in subtle details, affected by the movement of the public in the exhibition space. Using motion sensing technology, the work addresses the poetics of presence, and narrative plot development through the acts of wiping away and bringing forth.

the visualization consists of the play between the noise, randomness and order, through multiple layerings and subtle changes that build up over time and in response to spectators movements. There is a back and forth transition between two images that is produced dynamically as a consequence of the spectators' actions. The first state is a textured image surface continuously being covered by white visual noise, like film dust, or snow falling on a windshield. The noise is made up of ascii characters that must be wiped away by the spectators' movements to activate further events.


Transitional Spaces
The movement of people passing through the entrance and hallway spaces of the Siemens headquarters architecture trigger narrative events seen on large screen projections within the spaces.

Garden
Positioned near the security gates separating the public exhibition space from the private offices. A blurred image of a garden begins to oscillate when someone enters into the motion sensing camera's field of vision. The image becomes more focused as people move closer to the security turnstiles. Continued non-moving presence under the camera's view causes the screen to become increasingly covered with visual noise until, after a few minutes the image is completely replaced by noise. With any movement the noise is suddenly eerased and the focus may shift around, triggered by people's locations in different zones in the space. When the turnstiles are crossed, the screen shows a close-up of a flashlight's circular beam, rapidly and randomly moving around.

Transitional Spaces: Light Behaviors
A group of insect-like moving text characters are assigned to follow individuals walking in front of the tracking camera over the main circular entrance space of the Siemens Headquarters. These characters are programmed to behave like the flocking movement of flying insects. When the computer detects that the tracked person is standing still, the flying characters come together to a point at which time they form a short phrase. This is followed by a text quote projected onto the screen. The quotes come from personals, news phrases and financial stock language that use or refer to literal or metaphorical expressions of transitional space.

Tranistional Spaces: Wheel of Fortune
The projected image covers a large wall in front of elevators and hallway with traffic to the next building. The image consists of "keywords" of personality descriptions. As the camera senses people's movement in the area in front of the elevator, the image is activated to spin so that different phrases come into focus. The computer is programmed to respond to the speed of movement, location and number of individuals in the space, allowing the audience to consciously interact with the camera's sensing device and spin this wheel of information.

A Sense of Place
Objects in a large blurred image come into focus according to the audience's location and movement in front of it. The actions are recorded in a database and calculated to occasionally trigger transitions to an image of an urban place, accompanied by ambient sounds to create a sense of presence either in Beijing or Los Angeles.


Tracing
A sensor controlled interactive installation consisting of projections onto a two-sided screen positioned in the middle of the exhibition space. Two different sets of data projected on the two sides of the screen wall are set in contrast to each other. The first consisting of phrases and places from the former Communist countries, the other expresing sentiments of Californian culture.




Jim Campbell       http://www.jimcampbell.tv/
Hallucination, 1998-1990
An interactive video installation mixing live imagery with images from videodisc and videotape creating a real size, real time distorted mirror effect on the monitor. The mirror sets the viewer on fire, and also puts a "virtual" woman in the reflection, who is not really in the room. Sometimes the woman observes the viewers passively and at other times her actions affect the virtual space.

Untitled (For Heisenberg), 1994-95
At the end of a dark hallway is a bed-size platform with a life-size image of a couple projected onto a layer of salt. The couple's intimate embrace is in slow motion. As the viewer progresses toward the bed, the image zooms in closer and closer. When the viewer reaches the bed, the image is an abstract close-up of the two lovers. The viewer's progress along the hallway alters the scale in a continuous and gradual way. The image, panning up and down the bodies of the figures, responds to the viewer's left to right position in the hallway.

No Present
projected image does not include the current visitor

Experiments In Touching Color, 1998-99
In a small dark room, the viewer touches a rear-projection video screen mounted horizontally on a pedestal. The touch of the viewer's finger triggers sound related to the image and turns the screen a solid color based upon the location of the viewer's fingers, magnifiying the color of the pixel being touched. The sound fades up when the image fades out.



Stephen Wilson     http://userwww.sfsu.edu/%7Eswilson/
Protozoa Games. 
Reflecting on animal experimentation and the relationships between species, the 'Protozoa Games' interactive installations allow humans and live protozoa to compete in a pinball-like environment mediated by digital microscope and motion tracking technologies.  In Follow-Me humans score points by moving their bodies to match Protozoa movements. In Control-Me humans score points by  getting Protozoa to do their bidding by stategies of domination or  friendly appeal.

Body Surfing.
Cultural theorists claim that in our electronically mediated era the physical body is increasingly irrelevant.  "Body Surfing" uses state of the art body sensing technology to ironically question this claim by allowing visitors to investigate the limitations and pleasures of the body through drumming, stretching, dancing, and running.

FATHER WHY
 A physical space serves as a metaphor for the emotional space surrounding the imminent death of a loved one. Computer responds with digital speech and music to viewers walking through the places of anger, longing, sadness, and forgetfulness

EXCURSIONS IN EMOTIONAL HYPERSPACE
 Four computer controlled mannequins each recounted a fictional life event from a unique emotional perspective. Mannequins were activated by a viewer's presence nearby. Movement to another mannequin caused the new one to reflect on the utterances of the previous dummy from its own perspective. The mannequins seemed to be actively listening to each other.



Scott Snibbe  http://www.snibbe.com/scott/index.html

Shy
Draws upon the classic tradition of cartoon animation to give a personality to the screen itself. As visitors walk into the field of this projected screen, their bodies disrupt its personal space, and the screen comes alive. The screen jumps, shirks and cowers at the imposition of the viewers’ bodies on its space. If the screen is disturbed too much, it leaves the space of the projection area entirely, and only returns when visitors leave or slow down. With careful, cautious movements, it is possible for viewers to make friends with the screen. The work thus creates a personal relationship between the embodied light of the screen and the bodies of viewers.


Concentration
craves bodies. Untouched, this screen presents a pristine rectangle of white light. As viewers walk into the field of this projected screen, the light of the screen immediately collapses around the viewer's silhouette. This light concentrates only around a single person within the screen's field. When viewers or their shadows touch, the light expands from one person to another. Light touches result in a flickering aura, reminiscent of a lightbulb with a loose electrical connection. The screen's glow can be transferred from person to person by reaching with their shadow into the body's core

Shadow
The instalation inverts the relationship between audience and screen by making the audience active and the screen receptive. Shadow presents a static rectangle of white light projected onto a screen. As viewers move in front of the projector, their bodies form shadows on the screen. After viewers move out of the projected beam’s path, the movements of their shadows are replayed over and over, gradually fading away and returning to the pure white projection. In this way, viewers experience their shadows as detached from their physical bodies, and as public artifacts

Deep Walls
The installation creates a projected cabinet of cinematic memories. Within each of 16 rectangles, the movements of different viewers within the space are projected, played back over-and-over, and reduced into the space of a small cupboard. Initially, when a viewer or viewers move into the larger rectangle of the entire projection, their shadows begin to be invisibly recorded, and one box within the projection (the eventual destination of the current movements) is cleared out. When all of these viewers leave the larger frame, their shadows are re-played within that smaller, single box, looping indefinitely. Thus the work presents records of the space, organized and collected into a flat cinematic projection. By collecting the viewers’ own shadows, the piece reveals how individual objects gain in symbolic meaning, while losing literal meaning, through organization, repetition and display.

Boundary Functions
Installation realized as a set of lines projected from overhead onto the floor which divide each person in the gallery from one another. With one person in the gallery there is no response. When two are present, there is a single line drawn halfway between them segmenting the room into two regions. As each person moves, this line dynamically changes, maintaining an even distance between the two. With more than two people, the floor becomes divided into cellular regions, each with the mathematical quality that all space within the region is closer to the person inside than any other.


Bill Keays  http://www.billkeays.com/
metaField Maze
The metaField Maze is a virtual, room-sized recreation of the traditional marble maze game. Instead of using knobs to control the play, the player walks over a projected 3D model of the game. When the player steps left or right, the model tips and the ball moves accordingly. The player must attempt to run the full course of the maze while avoiding the holes.

The metaField Maze is a highly compelling interactive installation where players use their whole bodies to interact. The objective of the game is clear and players immediately immerse themselves into play, leaving behind all notions of interface and technology.

metaCity Sarajevo
metaCity Sarajevo combines the metaField with an adjacent, vertical projection screen. A map of the former Yugoslavia with Bosnia-Herzegovina at the center is projected on the metaField. A virtual three-dimensional model of a city is projected on the wall portion with Web pages pasted on the surfaces of the buildings. When a person walks on the territory surrounding Bosnia-Herzegovina, the region they entered on changes color, indicating a particular political inclination. When the person then moves onto the Bosnia-Herzegovina portion of the map, it changes color and motif simultaneously. As this happens one of the buildings on the three-dimensional city model rotates and moves forward to prominently display a Web page containing information sympathetic to that particular political orientation in three-dimensional space on the vertical screen. All the different directions for entering Bosnia-Herzegovina invoke Web pages with a corresponding political spin.



Hanna Haaslahti  http://fantomatico.org/artworks/
Scramble Suit
In the installation user encounters his own image in a real-time projection. His reflection is being attacked by a computer generated character. The digital character is a kinetic monster, which tries to overlap users reflections in the projection and take it under it´s own control. When user moves and tries to avoid the visual invasion, he is engaged in a struggle to keep his own appearance in the projection. If the visual invasion is succesfull, the scramble suit takes control of the user´s image sucking and transforming it as part of itself. The user is encouraged to engage himself into a physical dialogue with his transformed counterpart and to attain his own image back. Scramble suit transforms user´s reflection into a media zombie, which remains wondering around the screen untill somebody gives it an identity again.

White Square
When approaching the square, user sees a human shaped shadow appear on the side of the square. The shadow starts to follow the user and responds to his movements. When user walks on top of the projected image multiple shadows appear and start circling around him. The movements of the shadows reflect the speed, direction and position of the user in the square. When there is more than five persons simultaneously in the square, the amount of shadows starts to decrease per person. Users can also exchange shadows and in that way create collaborative visual patterns. If user stays long inside the square, his shadows "grow older". They respond slower to user and their shape starts to fragment and dissolve.



Akitsugu Maebayashi
Velocity
 an interface to mediate between body and space. This proto-type work was created during the artist-in-residence program at IAMAS.   A strobe light flashes on the screen at the end of the dark corridor, and the flickering speed changes according to the movement of the visitor.

White Room
In this installation, sound and space are used as a medium to transmit events or experiences. Visitors can experience several events that were previously recorded in the duplicated 'white room'.  See also wareehouse.

Audible Distance
Three subjects can enter a dark, square space, equipped with a head mounted display and sensor system. In this space, their heartbeat is converted into audible pulses and visible globular shapes. The pulses and shapes are the only signals that make the position of each person perceptible. The subjects become aware of space between them not by their physical appearance or voice but in the form of virtual space made visible and audible


Miroslaw Rogala  http://www.rogala.org/
Lovers Leap
Interactive environment produced in two forms simultaneously as an interactive multimedia installation (using the viewer's body as a triggering device) and as a CD-ROM (using the viewer's hand as a triggering device). Thus the work occupies both a public space and a personal space. This created an environment where the audience self-selected themselves into participants and observers. Within each experience there exists a nexus between the work itself and the viewer's interpretation of it

Divided We Stand
An audience interactive media symphony in six movements.  Divided We Stand exists both as an art installation and as a performance piece. As an installation, viewers can move around in the physical space the work occupies. Infrared sensors expand the effective working space beyond the installation’s visible components to include the space of the viewer, whose behavior interactively modifies the state of the work itself. In this way, multiple viewers can explore the relationship of their bodies moving in space to the vast variety of images, sounds, and texts that the artist has embedded in its highly responsive structure.

Egarden
The viewer/listener creates the soundscape. Movement through the open structure triggers up to four pre-recorded speeches simultaneously, creating a "debate" that spans time and space with the rotating archive of two or three dozen one-minute speeches. The individual, through participation, must negotiate and attempt to balance collective and sometimes opposing voices


Jordan Crandall   http://jordancrandall.com/trigger/notebook.html
Part soft-core pornography, part political allegory and part Modernist play with media," Jordan Crandall's Trigger is a "sermon about masculinity, sex, surveillance, and violence." (Ken Johnson, The New York Times, 15 Nov 2002). // "The work of Jordan Crandall is the first journey into a new danger zone. It is already comprehensive in terms of the new sadistic or masochistic pleasures of the panoptic principle, as a study of the transformation of the gaze in the age of the panoptic principle between punishment and pleasure, between pleasure and pain." (Peter Weibel, "Jordan Crandall: Art and the Cinematographic Imaginary in the Age of Panoptic Data Processing" in Drive, Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2003).  

ZOOM IN to an eye framed by a viewfinder. PAN DOWN to a finger resting uneasily on the trigger of a rifle. Pulsing with tension, flesh pressed against metal, the routings of the combat device course through the body as the film courses through the projector. Careful breaths, quickening heartbeats, and the small vibrations of the finger mix with the staccato of the gear-driven celluloid. An eye locked on a viewfinder, a body held immobile, an image-target moving across the field of vision. What moves, how does it move, how can that movement be tracked, intercepted, recorded, re-presented? All of the moving elements synchronized in the explosive moment of "getting the shot." A target-object to be seen, saved, eliminated in a process of division: I/you, us/them, here/there. Body and machine meeting in a trigger device, awaiting the explosive act of engagement. Seeing-naming-firing. Perception orchestrated, positions and borders drawn, movements and forms contoured. A victim-picture captured in the routings between perception, technology, and the pacings of the body.





Simon Biggs  http://www.littlepig.org.uk/
Stream
Installation deals with issues concerning presence, both physical and remote (virtual), and asks "what if" we all lost the ability to differentiate ourselves and our sense of singularity in the world? What would it be like if we could all see what everybody else can see, from their point of view, and how would we perceive ourselves to "be" as a "stream of conciousness" amongst all the other "streams"? The title also evokes other connotations of the word "stream", such as streaming (downloading) data over the web and the temporality of streams of water and such-like.

Stream is both an unencumbered interactive immersive installation and a web based work. Viewers are confronted with a 3D visualisation of an abstract space composed of texts and what appear to be "will'o'wisp's"; ghost-like apparitions which stream constantly down through the space whilst laterally tracking the viewers position. As the viewer moves around the space the system tracks their position and generates a data-set which allows the 3D scene to dynamically re-map itself such that each "stream" of data functions to recreate the viewers parallax 3D view. This effects the depth of field (focus and transparency) of the texts and the parallax view of the "streams". This happens for all of the viewers such that they are able to see what all the other viewers are seeing and from each others "point of view". The multiple 3D views of the data-space are montaged together into a single shared image, where the actions of any one viewer effects what all the other viewers see.


Parallax
Installation is composed of three interactive video projections using very powerful high resolution video projectors and four computers with an infra-red remote visual sensing system for viewer interaction. On each screen is visible a number of figures. Each figure is individually interactive, with the audience and with each other. The piece uses object oriented and behavioural programming techniques.

Each figure is individually interactive and the viewer is fully modelled within the interactive system. The work will work with any number of viewers. Each viewer generates a three dimensional parallax view of four different figures on each video projection screen. As the viewer moves the three dimensional view on each of the three screens thus generated is modified to account for their new point of view. Each viewer generates their own perpective point of view and these are then montaged, on all the screens, into three integrated images such that each viewer is able to see all three scenes from the points of view of all the other viewers simultaneously.  See also Waiting Room


Halo
Halo is composed of four interactive video projections using very powerful high resolution video projectors and four computers with an infra-red remote visual sensing system for viewer interaction. On each screen is visible a number of figures. Each figure is individually interactive, with the audience and with each other. The piece uses object oriented and behavioural programming techniques.

Each figure is individually interactive and the viewer is fully modelled within the interactive system. A gravity well forms around each viewer, attracting flying figures into their orbit. When the viewer approaches the screen the figures are 'pulled' down to earth, where instead of flying they walk in direct interaction with the viewer. A number of interactive texts using generative grammars, based on the textual works of William Blake, are visible on each screen.




Nancy Patterson   http://www.vacuumwoman.com

THE MEADOW
Instalation explores and manifests the metaphorical space which lies between the 'simulated' and the 'real' - a space to which artists are inevitably drawn. Ambiguity and irony also share this space, and it is here that new mythologies and realities may be imagined. This space is particularly appropriate to artists working with new electronic technologies to bridge the gap between science and fiction.

Stepping into the installation space, the viewer is surrounded by four large colour monitors. Displayed on each monitor is real-time, full motion video of a different view: the four edges or corners of a meadow as seen from a central vantage point. It is winter in the meadow, then suddenly the season shifts. The views remain the same, but a certain motion or sequence of movements has triggered a transformation. Suddenly it is spring. The viewer discovers, as they move within the installation space, how to trigger these seasonal changes and find it is possible to move backwards in time, from winter to fall, or across seasons, from fall to spring, as well.



Dana Moser   http://scv.bu.edu/HiPArt/SpiritedRuins/Artists/dmoser/dmoser.html
His own sculpture for the gallery is a reference to pre-Socratic Greek philosophy, in particular the Pythagoreans, as he found "Spirited Ruins" to have an aesthetic kinship with that community's obsession with the spiritual connection between number, proportionality and perfection. A particular 4-on-a-side triangle called the "Tetractys of the Decad" was regarded by them as a symbol of perfection ("10 = 1+2+3+4"), and apparently they swore oaths on it as people use the bible in some contexts today. Mr. Moser is grateful to Gerald Hoyt for doing the 3-D modelling for the piece.

In physical space, a sensor detects a viewer's proximity to the sculpture and initiates animation of both the physical sculpture (fig 2) and the virtual model (fig1). Animation of the virtual model is accompanied by pre-recorded audio. There is no audio for the physical piece. An avatar's proximity to the virtual piece initiates the same actions in both virtual and physical space.



Anneke PETTICAN, Spencer ROBERTS  http://vision.mdg.human.nagoya-u.ac.jp/isea/program/E/artists/a706.html

'The trespass of her gesture'
Installation revolves around comings and goings of various kinds. Reciprocal relationships between artist, audience, chance and text converge in a loosely choreographed dance. The key protagonists in this dance are a virtual graffiti artist and her evolving text. Their partnership is complex and it is unclear which of them takes the lead.
Embodied by multiple networked projections, the virtual graffiti artist sprays a series of messages onto a large-scale public surface. The messages are presented in a random order and the duration of the performance is open-ended. The message content is site specific and the writing decays subtly over time.
Both the projected artist and her writing can vary in size. Manipulations of scale in terms of pattern and gesture are key factors in relation to her performance. The graffiti artist attempts to keep her practise covert. If approached she vanishes, only to reappear elsewhere within the networked space.





Jaime Del Val - Proyecto REVERSO
Morfogénesis
The physical body is enveloped within a magical visual and auditory dream world in this live performance work that blends electronic art, interactive dance, virtual architecture and electro acoustic sound. A dancer who is moving behind a transparent screen controls the real time generation of projected images and sounds. A camera picks up the dancer's movement, then this video is digitally processed and the resulting imagery is projected onto the screen showing the dancer's shape morphed within trails of coloured light. The software used recursively modifies and re-modifies the visual information tracked by the camera. Real and virtual space are brought together convincingly in this work by resisting the photorealism commonly found in virtual 3D environments. In fact the artist refuses the technological temptations of both spectacle and mystification, in favour of simplicity of movement and clarity of structure. Here the dancer moves in a constrained almost 2-dimensional plane that respects the projection screen. Whereas most interactive dance often leaves the viewer puzzled as to what effects the dancers are initiating, and why, at certain points in this piece floating wisps of colour and abstract shapes appear to be pulled and formed by the dancer's gestures. The moving body in Morfogénesis with its generic look and smooth flowing motion achieves a liquid integration with the transformed image of itself, a body in the process of constant becoming.




Palindrome   http://www.palindrome.de/
EyeCon Motion Sensing System in combination with MAX/MSP: the performer's movement controls the sound score.



Mirjam Struppek  Interactionfield 
Interaction Field - Site based on thesis

 The public space is a field, which is created and becomes alive through various forms of interactions. Thus the interactive art with its life proximity, communicative issues and reflection of the power of the modern technologies is well suited to be linked with the urban public space.   This information plattform presents detailed some selected interactive media projects, which went consciously into the urban public space. The analysis, categorization and questionaire with the producers of these 22 examples show, how the new media can be alternatively used, in order to contribute to the rediscovery und reactivation of the urban space and to lead to new interaction qualities.

Example: Les-Lignes-Mobiles   Antoine Schmit  - On a plaza projected thin white lines seem to lead an independent life. If passers-by enter the certain not visible area, they are first framed by a circle and then the lines appear, which interact with these persons. Sometimes they emerge, develop connections between the passing people or attach themselves to their heels and then disappear again.







Toni Dove  http://www.tonidove.com/new_intro.html
Artificial Changelings
A romance thriller about shopping, Artificial Changelings is presented as an installation in which one person at a time uses body movement to interact with sound and images. Viewers can take turns either as particpants or spectators. The story opens in Paris at the end of the 19th century and travels to an unnamed future through interactions with two female characters. Artificial Changelings brings the movie off the screen and into the room inviting viewers to engage with characters in an immersive environment. It is rich with multi-layered imagery and has a stunning score by composer Peter Scherer.



M Behrens  http://www.mbehrens.com/tokyo.htm
Tokyo Circle
CIRCLE version 1 was an installation in which acoustic feedbacks that occurred between speakers arranged in a circular steel frame around the perfomer and the performer's microphones were "played". In version 1.1 the movements of the hands were recorded with a videocamera and displayed behind or above the installation to emphasize the connections between movement and sound.
Making feedbacks with the described setup can be interpreted as the act of making audible an energy potential in the installation's space.

TOKYO CIRCLE allows for modulating a potential acoustic energy field -a virtual acoustic space- inside (or virtually overlapping) the exhibition room. The sound relates to the symbolic meanings of the circle. The shape of the acoustic space relates to the position of the performing spectator. Via sensors the spectators' movements inside the circle are tracked to control the different sounds audible on the circle's multichannel speaker system.


Seiko Mikami's and Sota Ichikawa  Gravicells

Seiko Mikami's and Sota Ichikawa's responsive audio-visual environment 'gravicells' - Gravity and Resistance Project takes up the issue of gravity in relation to our bodies. Starting from the premise that gravity is not materialized without a counter force, i.e. resistance, Mikami and Ichikawa have designed a dynamic mixed reality space where the rub between the powers of gravity and resistance can be experienced physically by the visitors. The deconstruction of these natural phenomena shifts the visitor's habitual sense of gravity, and hence alters the perception of one's body in space.

All movements and changes made by participating visitors are transformed real-time into the movements of sound, light (LED) and geometrical images through the sensors, so that the whole space develops or changes in this interactive installation. The moment a participant stands and moves on the unsteady sensor-fitted floor, the variation of position, weight, and speed is automatically and continuously measured, analyzed, and translated into audio-visual representation, which generate substantial spatial changes. Overlapping with the real physical space, the computerized space reconstructs the spatial geometry, and distorts the coordinates through the participant's weight and position. In addition, the position of the exhibition space is simultaneously measured by GPS, and with plural linked GPS satellites as part of the work it involves several observation points outside of the earth. By corollary the area of our perception has expanded, and confronts us with the fact that the installation site is moving relative to gravity as well.


Sponge - Membrane
The installation is a set of large translucent screens suspended throughout DEAF04's Van Nelle exhibition hall.  Approaching a Membrane, passersby see people on the opposite side re-projected onto the translucent material.  A sweep of the hand reshapes, swirls, thickens and thins what one sees through the membrane via dynamics of water, smoke, shockwaves or particles.  The system's visual and acoustic responses evolve according to the activity of the visitors with the passage of time.  The interplay between the Membrane's calligraphic media and the visitors' moving bodies generates vortices that entangle the Van Nelle factory site's present visitors and past ghosts.


Chu-Yin Chen\ - Quorum Sensing
The title of this interactive installation comes from a biological phenomenon called Quorum Sensing. It describes a communication and an activation mechanism of group behaviours resulting from the secretion and the sensitivity to self-inductive pheromones. This enables bacterial colonies to coordinate their individual behaviour and to act like a multi-cellular organization.
Derived from this idea, the interactivity in the Quorum Sensing installation is related to a collective interaction mode that depends on mutual comprehension and the needs of the spectators as a group. As Philippe Codognet states: "The meaning of these interactions in a multi-user environment is not produced by the artist, but fully and freely built by the spectators and causes the emergence of a shared behaviour".



Marie Sester    www.sester.net
ACCESS
Instalation lets you track anonymous individuals in public places, by pursuing them with a robotic spotlight and acoustic beam system. ACCESS presents control tools generated by the surveillance technology combined with the advertising and Hollywood industries, and the internet.



Kuan Huang- Body  Synthesizer Video.
A camera captures the movement of the "player"'s hands and head. Those movements are processed by the computer and converted to some signals which are turned into different sounds. So it looks like he is playing some virtual instruments, like the piano or the drum.

Tobias Skog - Activity Wallpaper
Installation explores how a place can get an electronic "memory" of how it is inhabited: how people move around, socialize, make noise or spend time there. Their activity data are collected using sensors, and an interpretation of the data is then projected in the form of an ambient visualization. The prototype analyzes audio from a café setting, accounting for various characteristics of the current activity level, such as the number of people speaking or the amount of background noise. The more the color diverts from the background, the noisier the café is. The number of "dots" in each row represents the crowd, so that the more dots, the bigger the crowd was at that point. With a look at the projection, patrons can see how the activity level at the café has fluctuated over the week.


Chris Dodge http://www.aec.at/en/archives/center_projekt_ausgabe.asp?iProjectID=11665
What Will Remain of These
Heisenberg«s Uncertainty Principle states that it is impossible to understand complex minute systems on a global scale because through the process of viewing, the system is fundamentally altered. Likewise, in this installation, there is no objective location from which one can view the work without altering it. By walking in the installation space their presence is constantly leaving a trace within the mathematical algorithm. Thus there is a comforting acquiescence to the physical laws of conservation of mass [our images] and energy [our bodily motions], leaving an eternal marker of our existence



Myron Kruger


Small World
Participants stand in front of a large projection screen depicting a realistic three-dimensional terrain. The projection screen is a portal into that world. Participants are able to move through that terrain by pretending to fly exactly as a child would by holding their hands out from their sides and leaning in the direction they want to go. In addition, they can control their altitude by raising or lowering their hands. When they lower their hands, they descend to the surface. When they raise their hands, they ascend-up to the level of the mountain tops. If they keep their hands elevated, they soar up into space and see for the first time that the terrain that they were exploring is really the surface of a planet.
Small World

Video World
responsive environments," as he called them. Krueger "composed" environments, such as Videoplace from 1970, in which the computer responded to the gestures of the audience by interpreting, and even anticipating, their actions. Audience members could "touch" each other's video-generated silhouettes, as well as manipulate the odd, playful assortment of graphical objects and animated organisms that appeared on the screen, imbued with the presence of artificial life
VIDEOPLACE by Myron Krueger




Zachary Booth Simpson
Calder
Using new infrared sensing technology on a rear-projected screen, participants simply draw a Calder-like mobile by touching the canvas.  When they hold a beam, the mobile comes alive, moving around in 3D with realistic physics
http://www.mine-control.com/

Shadow
A disembodied shadow wanders around alone in a corner.  When the participant enters, the figure reacts by running away.  Aggressively chasing the figure leads only to his fear and escape. When the participants stay still the figure gains trust and steps closer, finally engaging in an embrace.

Mariposa
A swarm of butterflies circles as if looking for something. When your shadow enters nothing appears to happen at first; eventually, if you remain very still, you gain their trust and they begin to land on your hand or shoulder to rest. If you make a sudden movement they will scatter as even the slightest twitch sends them into a panic.






Richard Marks

EyeToy
Play is the first games compilation for EyeToy, the revolutionary new USB camera device for PS2 that detects your body movement and allows you to interact with the onscreen action. Play offers up 12 hugely enjoyable party games that involve anything from cleaning windows to fending off fearsome ninja adversaries. Up to four players can play consecutively in the multiplayer league, although you can squeeze as many personalised profiles for people as you like onto your Memory Card (complete with photos!). In addition, you can make sure that there's always something on TV with a selection of mind-boggling Play Room visual effects, and record messages for your friends with the Video Message function. Wherever there's a party to be had, or you just fancy a entertaining night in with your friends or family, EyeToy: Play is guaranteed to keep you amused for hours.
EyeToy (playstation motion video game)  interview1  interview2