Use of PET (Positron Emission Tomagraphy) and fMRI (Functional Magenet Resonance Imaging)  to observe live brain function

Determining coma vs consciousness. How auditiory cliks show up in PET 
right = normals
middle = coma with recovery
left = vegetative

M. Boly et al   Auditory processing in the vegetative state  (9/12/05 - 16)

Sentences read to person
bottom = controls
top = coma (who recovered)

AM Owen et al (9/12/05 - 16)

fMRI research on lie detection

U Penn research on which areas active in deception

Knockout  of particular genes

Knock out B2 receptors in midbrain of rats - lack exploratory behavior - put it back revive this kind of behavior. Other experiments control obesity, aggressive behavior,...

Jean-pierre Changeux 

(9/12/05 - 16)

process of creating knockout in mice embryo

FoxP2 Gene  - single gene controls speech- Ke family half could not speak     -  knockout in mice - not able to make certain vocalizations

Simon Fisher -10/24/05
"knockout" mice that are genetically unable to produce the enzyme PERK (pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum kinase)  - needed for growth/ bones/etc
PERK knockout mice (small)

Flourescent tracking of bio agents in body

Transplanated bone marrow cells did show up in nerual cells of leukemia patients.  fusion of marrow cells with Purkinje neurons. Dendrites indicate new growth

helen blau 11/7/05 21

Protein based sensors - target specific cell functions
Malarial parasites

tagged with red fluorescent protein, the malarial parasites in the sporozoite stage can be seen migrating along the sinusoids in a mouse liver. (Photo: Ute Frevert et al.)

Technologies: MicroArray

2 samples of RNA are taken from 2 seperate sources and cDNA is created from each by using a technique called RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction). Each cDNA sample is labeled with its own specific dye. Both cDNA samples are then washed over a single array, after which dye intensities on each spot is calculated using a fluorescence camera. The image “” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

Technologies: Automated DNA Sequencer

Automated identification of the bases.  Cut at each location, test with reagent. Detect with photodetector.  2 million a day.

Technologies:  Microplate Automation

Automatic loading of multiple arrays

Pheremones - Electronic Nose

Electronic Nose detection of Disease 
Raed Sweik, Cleveland Clinkc Foundation - detect lung cancer, also pneumonia, vaginitis

e-nose (cyranose 320)
(9/12/05 -36)

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Electronic nose chip

Professor Ichiro Takeuchi
Sexual Communication in mice tears

H. Kimoto et al    10/24/05 -20

Specific Conditions/ Diseases

-The free radical theory of aging
-Mitochondria and aging
-The glycation theory of aging
-Proteins damage and maintenance in aging
-Dna damage and dna repair
-Telomeres and aging
-Cellular senescence and apoptosis in aging
-Longevity genes
-Gene silencing in aging
-Hormones and aging
-The immune system and aging
-Inflammation and aging
-Accumulation of toxins and chemical garbage
-Cancer and aging
-Biomarkers of aging
-Caloric restriction with adequate nutrition

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Cynthia Kenyon - 300 year old (equiv)  c.elegans worms - aging gene
Soạn: AM 835971 gửi đến 996 để nhận ảnh này
caloric restriction - 100 year old mountain people

Obesity  - genes that control obesity, hormones that control energy balance in the system, drugs that block receptors for hunger stimulations

5/24/05 -20
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Synthetic Biology

How to build life out of inorganic matter
David Deamer :  12 requirements:  membrane enclosurecapture energy, divide, add to information stoere, etc

Biobricks, Open Wetware  -  organizations to store and distribute elements researchers develop for constructing life


Bringing Microbiology to the Masses

Vending machine for Reagents - materials needed in research

10/10/2005  Helena BioSciences - 
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Bio-Rad Microarray Printer

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Personal Genome Project

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Automated Microscopes
Nikon - Coolscope

New ideas about gene expression

multiple influencers  - overcome dogma

p 33 5/24/05

Mass Spectrometer

Using HIV to deliver therapeutic genes to combat cancer

Inder Verma

1/06 -62