Christy Lao
San Francisco State University
Second Language Acquisition


Course Description| CourseObjectives| Course Calendar| Standards| Rubrics| References

Course Description

This course is an introduction to the theories and practice of second language acquisition.  Sociolinguistic, ethnolinguistic, applied linguistic and psycholinguistic aspects of second language acquisition will be examined and its application in second language teaching and learning in elementary school classroom will be discussed.

Course Objectives:

1. To examine research-based instructional models designed to assist elementary students in learning a second language.

2. To present instructional strategies that are effective in second language development and content learning, including sheltered instruction or SDAIE (Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English).

3. To examine the nature of language acquisition in and out of school settings.

4. To examine instructional materials used in elementary school core curriculum and evaluate how accessible the materials are to English language learners.

5. To develop an understanding of social structures that immigrant communities face in their new environment as these affect their educational adjustment.

6. To gain knowledge with formal and informal assessment, diagnosis, and evaluation instruments used with English language learners.

7. To investigate our own stories about language acquisition and language heritage as we increase awareness of ourselves as language users, learners, and teachers.

8. To hear the voices and perspectives of language minority students and parents as they discuss their own experiences with schooling in the U.S.

9. To inquire the affects of language and cultural factors in explaining student success and failure.

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Course Calendar

Reading Topics & Schedule

Class 1, July 29 Introduction and Overview

Class 2 & 3 Theories of Second Language Acquisition
July 30
Course Reader: Krashen, S. (1982).  Second language  acquisition theory.
In Principles of Practice in Second Language Acquisition. NY: Prentice Hall,
Course Reader: Krashen, S. (1992). Language Acquisition. In Fundamentals
Of Language Education. Laredo Publishing, pp 1-7(Recommended reading)
McLaughlin, B. (1992).  Myths and misconceptions about second language  learning: what every teacher needs to unlearn (Recommended reading).

Class 4, July 31 Acculturation and Second Language Acquisition
Course Reader: Schumann, J. (1986).  Research on the Acculturation Model  for the Second Language Acquisition. Journal of Multilingual and  Multicultural Development, 7(5).
Tong (1997). The relationship between first and second languages and  culture:
Finding a cross-cultural identity. (Recommended reading)
Graham, C.R. & Brown, C. (1996).  The effects of acculturation on second
language proficiency in a community with a two-way bilingual program. The
Bilingual Research Journal, 20 (2), PP.235-26 (Recommended reading).

Class 5, July 31  Bilingualism & Language Proficiency
Cary, S. (1997), pp.53-57.
Course Reader: J. Cummins (1994).  Primary language instruction and the
education of language minority students.  In C.F. Layben (Ed), Schooling and Language Minority Students: A theoretical framework. Los Angeles:  EDAC, CSULA.
J. Cummins ìBICS and CALPî
August, D., Calderon, M., & Carlo, M. (2001). The Transfer of Skills from
Spanish to English: A Study of Young Learners
Krashen, S.  Is one year/180 days enough
Hakuta, Butler, & Witt, (2000).  How long does it take English learners to  attain proficiency? (Recommended reading)

Class 6, Aug. 1  Theories and Practice
Cary, S. (1997), pp. 45-53.
Research-Informed Teaching in Bilingual Education: Does It Happen? How
Does It Help?
Course Reader: Tse, L.  (1995).  Silence is golden: When language
minority students donít speak.  TESL Reporter, 28(2), 61-65.

Class 7, Aug. 1  Effective Instruction
Cary, S. (1997), pp. 25-44.
Freeman, Y., Mercuri, S., and Freeman, D. (2001). Keys to Success for
Bilingual Students with Limited Formal Schooling.
Workshop on research methods (12-1:30?)
Course Reader: Johnson, D. (1992). Case-Study Approaches in Approaches
To Research in Second Language Learning. pp.75-99.
Johnson K. & Joohnson H. (1998).  Research methodology for language
learning.  Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Linguistics: A  handbook for Language Teaching. MA: Blackwell Publishers. pp. 274-280.

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Class 8, Aug. 5  Free Voluntary Reading
Krashen, S. (1993). The Power of Reading, pp.1-89.
Ulanoff  & Pucci (1999). Learning Words from Books: The Effects of Read
Aloud on Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition (Recommended reading).
*In-class discussion/informal presentation of your inquiry project proposal
*Due: Inquiry Project Proposal

Class 9, Aug. 5  Read Aloud, Sustained Silent Reading  & Access to Books
Trelease (2001), pp.1-59, 106-213.
Chow, and Chou. ìEvaluating Sustained Silent Reading in Reading classî (Recommended reading).
Course Reader: Worthy, J., Moorman, M., & Turner, M. (1999).  What
Johnny likes to read is hard to find in school. Reading Research Quarterly,
Pucci, Sandra, L. (1994). Supporting Spanish language literacy: Latino
children and free reading resources in schools. Bilingual Research Journal,
18 (1&2), 67-82.
Gonzalez-Jensen, M. (1997).  The status of childrenís fiction literature  written in Spanish by U.S. authors (Recommended reading). html#f

Class 10, Aug. 6 Program Models
Cary, S. (1997), pp. 7-24.
Genesee, F. (1999). Program alternatives for linguistically diverse students.
Fern, V. (1999). System Wide Reform: The San Francisco Unified School District Case.
Christian, D. (1994). Two-Way Bilingual Education: Students Learning Through Two Languages.
Montague, N. (1997). Critical components for dual language programs. (Recommended reading).

Amaral, O. (2001). Parentsí Decisions About Bilingual Program Models.

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Class 11, Aug. 6  Why Bilingual Education?
Krashen, S. (1999).  Misunderstandings about bilingual education:
The nature of the problem, what we can do about it, and a reason to be optimistic.
Krashen, S. (2000).  The Invalidity of SAT9 Scores and the Effectiveness of
Bilingual Education.
Krashen, S. (2000). Proposition 227's Success in California Never
Happened: Response to OíSullivan.
Crawford (2001).  A nation divided by one language.,4273,4147870,00.html
Crawford (1999).  The campaign against proposition 227: A post mortem.
Bilingual Research Journal, 21(1).
Lee, S. (1999). The Linguistic Minority Parents' Perceptions of Bilingual
E-reserve: Lao & Krashen. A Study of Graduate Studentsí Attitude
towards Bilingual Education (recommended).
McQuillan & Tse (1996).  Does research matter? Bilingual Research
Journal, 20 (1), 1-27 (recommended).
Crawford (1997).  Best evidence: Research foundations of the Bilingual   Education Act"   (recommended).

Class 12, Aug. 7  The Development of Heritage Language
Cary, S. (1997), pp.57-64.
Course Reader: Krashen, S. (1998). Heritage Language Development:
Some Practical Arguments.  In Krashen, S. D., Tse, L. & McQuillan J.
(Eds.), Heritage    Language Development.  CA: Language Education
Associates, pp.3-13.
Tse, L. (1998).  Ethnic identify formation and its implications for heritage  language development.  In Krashen, S. D., Tse, L. & McQuillan J. (Eds.),  Heritage Language Development.  CA: Language Education Associates,
Course Reader: Wong-Fillmore, L. (1991).  When learning a second   language means losing the first.  Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 6,   323-346.
Crawford, J. (1999). Heritage Languages in America: Tapping a ìHiddenî
Course Reader:  McQuillan, J. & Tse, L. (1995).  Child language brokering  in linguistic minority communities: Effects on cultural interaction, cognition  and literacy.  Language and Education, 9 (3), 195-214.
Hinton, L. (1999). Involuntary Language Loss Among Immigrants: Asian-
American Linguistic Autobiographies.
Setsue Shibata, (2000). Opening a Japanese Saturday School in a Small
Town in the United States: Community Collaboration to Teach Japanese as
a Heritage Language.
Crawford, J. (1996). Seven Hypotheses on Language Loss: Causes and
Cures (Recommended reading).

Class 13, Aug.7    Guest speaker Victor Low

Class 14,  Aug. 8 Instructional Supports
Cary, S. (1997), pp. 65-100.
Course Reader: Feuerverger, G. (1994). A Multicultural Literacy
Intervention for Minority Language Students. Language and Education, 8
(3), 123-146.
Griego-Jones, T.  Assessing studentsí perceptions of biliteracy in two way  bilingual classrooms.

Class 15 Aug. 8 Assessment & Continuing Learning
Cary, S. (1997), pp. 101-116.
Short, D. (1993). Assessing Integrated Language and Content Instruction.

Class 16, Aug. 9 Student Presentation
** Due: Inquiry paper

Click here for applicable California Content  Standards

Click here for Assessment

Click here for References

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last modified Summer 2002
Christy Lao