RICH AND POOR NATIONS: THE NORTH-SOUTH DIALOGUE

International Relations 540

 
Instructor: A.Y. Yansane
Office: HSS 334; 338-2495
Hours: T &TH:9-10am & by appt        .

I. INTRODUCTION: SCOPE, CONTENT AND EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES

The general objective of the course is to examine the socio-economic problems and policies of Third World countries (Africa, Asia, South and Central America) in order to foster an understanding of the major analytical and policy issues surrounding the problems of (under-) development. As such, the course combines and examination of the theoretical and practical aspect of development (general concept, models, structural characteristics, the expansion of world political economy, and the strategies for reversing the process of underdevelopment), with analysis of the social and economic inequalities left behind by the colonial powers, hence the dichotomies of rich and poor nations, industrialized and developing countries, North and South, etc. By taking specific questions such as poverty and population growth in Asia, agrarian crisis in Latin America, agricultural development in Africa, unemployment, industrialization, the modernization debate, social stratification, and income inequality, we will discuss them from both the general perspective of (under-) development theory, and from a perspective which emphasizes the experience of selected Third World countries. The specific objective is to understand the history of a given socio-economic problem as well as critical evaluation of policy prescriptions employed to solve the problem.

This course is a Social Science course which draws upon economic, historical, political, sociological, and policy oriented materials. The successful completion of this course or the expected learning outcome should enable the student to understand and analyze the environmental constraints and opportunities (domestic and foreign) which challenge economic and political development as well as business management in the Third World.
 

II. COURSE REQUIREMENTS

This course is offered for four units. There will be four hours of lecture and discussions per week. Discussions are an integral part of the course. Sometimes there will be guest lecturers. Students will be evaluated on their performance on brief exams, a mid-term, a final exam, the discussions of the assigned readings, and individual projects or term papers. The objectives of the course are to be reached in large measure by extensive reading and class discussions.
The first two brief exams will cover the readings and lecture materials. Each student will write one research paper (approximately 15-20 pages) on a topic of his/her choice, to be cleared by the instructor before the beginning of the second week of the semester.

A student can also choose (instead of the term paper) three  book reviews to be devoted to a topic linked to one of the themes of the course. The three books must be cleared with the instructor before the beginning of the second week of the semester. The first review is due on February 25th, the second review on March 25th, and the third review on April 22nd.

The two brief exams will constitute 40% of the course grade. They will be in the 6th and 10th weeks of class. The final paper will constitute 50% of the grade. Class participation will make the remaining 10%.
 
 

III. REQUIRED READINGS

1.  A.Y. Yansane, Decolonization and Dependency: Problems of Development of African  Societies, Westport, Connecticut and London, England: Greenwood Press, 1980.
OR
 A.Y. Yansane, Decolonization of West African States of French Colonial Legacy,  Comparison and Contrast: Development on Guinea, The Ivory Coast and Senegal,  Cambridge: Schenkman Publication, Copy. 1989.
OR
 A. Y. Yansane, Prospects for Recovery and Sustainable Development in Africa, Westport,  CT & London: Greenwood Press, 1996
OR
 A. Y. Yansane, Development Strategies in Africa: Current Economic, Soup-Political and  Institutional Trends & Issues, Westport, CT & London: Greenwood Press, 1996

2.  McCalla, Agricultural Policies in World Markets, New York: McMillan, 1985.
OR
 Albert Hirschman, Essays in Trespassing: Economics, Politics and Beyond, Cambridge:  Cambridge U.P. 1984.
OR
 Alain de Janvry, The Agrarian Question in Latin America, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins  U.P., 1981.
OR
 Joel S. Migdal, Peasants, Politics & Revolution, New Jersey: Princeton University Press,  1986
OR
 The World Bank, South East Asian Miracle, Washington: The World Bank, 1993.
OR
 
3.  Gerald Meier (Ed.) Leading Issues in Economic Development, N.Y.: Oxford U. Press, 1995.
OR
 Warren Baum and Stokes Tolbert, Investing in Development: Lessons of World Bank  Experience: Oxford U.Press, 1984.
OR
 Hamza Alavi and Teodore Shanin (Ed.) Introduction to the Sociology of Developing  Societies, N.Y., & London: Monthly Review Press, 1982.
4.  The South Commission, The Challenge to the South, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1990.
OR
 The South Centre, Facing the Challenge, London & New Jersey: Zed Books, 1993.
OR
 International Commission on Peace & Equity, Uncommon Opportunities, Zed Books, 1994
OR
 Lester R. Brown et al., The State of the World, New York: WW Norton & Company, 1996


BOOKS FOR REVIEWS

Books for Review - International Political Economy - Download PDF - 14 pages


COURSE OUTLINE

 I.  DECOLONIZATION AND DEPENDENCE
Reading:
A.Y. Yansane (ED.) Decolonization and Dependency:  Problems of Development of African Societies
OR
A.Y. Yansane (Ed.) Decolonization of West African States of French colonial Legacy, Comparison and Contrast: Development in Guinea, The Ivory Coast & Senegal, Cambridge: Schenkman Publishing Corporation, 1989.
 

0. (0 Week) REVIEW OF METHODS:
Issues in the philosophy of science; values and the objectivity of the social sciences; verification and the nature of theories; explanation; theories and critiques.

1. Israel Scheffler, "Meaning and Objectivity" (Ch. 3), "Change and Objectivity" (Ch. 4) in Science and Subjectivity

2. A.W. Coats "Is There a Structure of Scientific Revolutions in Economic Thought" in History of Political Economy III, I, Spring 1971 pp. 136-151

3. Michael Polanyi, The Tacit Dimension (Doubleday 1966): Polanyi offers a more sustained attempt to demonstrate the lack of objectivity in science for those who want to follow it up.

4. Ernest Nagel "The Social Sciences can be value free" in Structure of Science, Harcourt, Brace and Jovanovitch, 1961, pp 485-502

5. Kenneth Boulding, "Economics as a Moral Science", American Economic Review, march 1969

6. Robert Heilbroner, "On the Limited Relevance of Economics" The Public Interest, no. 21, Fall 1970, pp 80-93

7. Robert Solow, "Science and ideology in Economics", The Public Interest, no. 21, Fall 1970, pp 94-107

8. Karl Popper, "The Hypothetico-Deductive Method and the Unity of Social and Natural science" in David Braybooke (Ed), Philosophical Problems of the Social Sciences, (Macmilln 1965) pp 32-41.  Popper endorses the thesis that the basic methodology of natural and social science is the same.

9. Ernest Nagel, "Methodological Problems of the Social Sciences," Ch. 13, Parts I & II of Structure of Science (Harcourt, Brace & Jovanovitch, 1961) pp 447-446.  A more sustained attempt to show that the methodologies of natural and social sciences are alike despite obvious differences in their subject matter.

10. Futz Machlup, "Operationalism and Pure Theory in Economics" in Sherman Roy Krupp, The Structure of Economic Science
 
 

11. May Brodbeck, "Models, Meaning and Theories" in May Brodbeck Ed., Readings in the Philosophy of The Social Science, (Prentice Hall Inc., 1970) pp 579-600.  A standard, yet reasonably coherent classification of models which does not require much knowledge of logic.

12. Carl G. Hempel, "Ideal Types in Social Science Comply with Covering Law Requirements" in Aspects of Scientific Explanation, pp 155-172

13. Paul K. Feyerabend, "How to be a Good Empiricist: A Plea for Tolerance in Matters Epistemological" in Baruch A. Brody (Ed.), Readings in the Philosophy of Science, (Prentice Hall Inc., 1970) pp 319-342

14. J.W.N. Watkins, "Methodological Individualism and Non=Hemeplian Ideal Types," in Herbert Feigl and May Brobeck (Ed.), Readings in the Philosophy of Sciences (Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc.) 1953, pp 723-743.

15. Max Weber, "Ideal Types and Theory Construction" in May Brodebeck (Ed.), Readings in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences, Macmillan, 1968) pp 496-507

16. Carl G. Hempel and Paul Oppenheim, "The covering Law Analysis of Scientific Explanation" in Feigl and Brodebeck (Ed.), Readings in the Philosophy of Sciences, pp 319-352 or in Brody (Ed.) Readings in the Philosophy of kScience, (Prentice Hall, Inc. 1970), pp 8-27

17. Michael Scriven, "Explanations, Predictions and Laws" in Baruch Brody (Ed.), Readings in the Philosophy of Sciences, pp 88-104

18. Ernest Nagel, "Statistical Generalizations and Their Explanations," Ch. 14, Part I, Structure of Science, pp 503-520

19. Carl G. Hempel, "Deductive Nomological vs statistical Explanation" in Feigl and Maxwell (Ed.) Minnesota Studies in Philosophy of Science, pp 98-170

20. Carl G. Hempel, "The Logic of Functional Analysis" in May Brodbeck (Ed.) Readings in the Philosophy of Social Sciences (Macmillan, 1968), pp 179-210 or in Brody (Ed.) pp 121-147

21. Richard, Bernstein, Praxis and Action (Part IV)

22. Karl Polanyi, "The Economy vs Instituted Process" in George Dalton (Ed.), Primitive, Archaic and Modern Economies

23. Peter Berger and Thomas Luckman, The Social Construction of Reality

24. J. Habermas, "Knowledge and Interest" in Inquery IX, 1966 or in Dorothy Emmitt and Alasdaire MacIntyre (Eds.) Sociological Theory and Philosophical Analysis

25. Eric Fromm and Michael Maccoby, Social Character in a Mexican Village

26. Milton Friedman, "The Methodology of Positive Economics" in Essays in Positive Economics or in May Brodbeck (Ed.), Readings in the Philosophy of Social Sciences, pp 508-528

27. Ernest Nagel, "Assumptions in Economic Theory," American Economic Review (May, 1963) pp 211-219.  Also "Comment" by Paul A. Samuelson, pp 231-136

28. Fritz machlup, "Professor Samuelson on Theory and Realism," American Economic Review (Sep 1964) pp 7330735.  Also "Theory and Realism: A Reply by Paul A. Samuelson, pp 736-739

29. Gerald Garb, A.F. Lerner, and G.J. Massey, "Professor Samuelson on Theory and Realism: Comments," American Economic Review (Dec 1965), pp 1151-1164.  Also a "Reply" by Paul A. Samuelson, pp 1164-1173

30. Robert Heilbroner, "On the Limits of Economic Prediction," Diogenes, (April 1970)

31. Alfred F. Chalk, "Concepts of Change and the role of Predictability in Economics," History of Political Economy, II, I, Spring 1970, pp 97-117

32. M. Blang, Economic Theory in Retrospect, Richard D. Irwin, 1968

33. Gunnar Myrdal, The Political Element in the Development of Economic Theory, London: Routledge and kegan Paul ltd., 1953, v-viii, Ch. 104

34. Karl Polanyi, The Great Transformation

35. Oscar Lange, Political Economy

1. (First Week) STRUCTURES AND PROBLEMS:
References:
1. Theotonio Des Santos "The Structure of Dependence" in K.Y. Fann and D.C. Hodges (Ed.)  Readings in US Imperialism, pp. 225-236

2. R. Rhodes, Imperialism and Underdevelopment

3. A.G. Frank, The Development of Underdevelopment

4. T.L. Allen, "The Meaning of the Working Class in Africa" in The Journal of Modern African  Studies, X,2, 1972, pp. 169-189.

5. William Minter, Imperial Network and External Dependency:  The Case of Angola

6. Sheldon Gellar, Structural Changes and Colonial Dependence, Senegal, 1885-1945

7. R. Sandbrook & R. Cohen, The Development of an African Working Class, Studies in Class  Formation and Action

8. S. Avineri (Ed.), Karl Marx on colonialism and Modernization

9. Griffin, K., "Reflections on Latin American Development," in Oxford Economic Papers  March 1966, pp. 1-18 also in C.T. Nisbet (Ed.), Latin American Problems in Economic  Development, 1969, pp. 313-333

10. Clive Thomas, Dependence & Transformation

11. McGowan, P. "Economic Dependence and Economic Performance in Black Africa" in  Journal of Modern African Studies 14, 1st march, 1975

12. Gai Dharam, "Concepts and Strategies of Economic Independence" in Journal of Modern  African Studies 11, 7 March 1973, pp. 21-42

13. Wallerstein, I., "Class & Class conflict in Contemporary Africa"  in Monthly Review 26, 9,  Feb., 1975

14. Shivji, Issa G., "Peasants and Class Alliances" in Review of African Political Economy, 3 May- oct., 1975

15. Kwame Nkurmah, Neocolonialism, The Last Stage of Imperialism, International Publishers,  1965

16. Amin, S. "Underdevelopment and Dependence in Black Africa; Origins and Contemporary  Forms" in Journal of Modern African Studies 10, 4, Dec. 1972; p. 520-524

17. Amin, S., Accumulation, World Scale, Vol. I & II, Monthly Press, 1

18. Yansane, A. "Some problems of Monetary Dependency in West African States of French  Colonial Legacy" in The Review of Black Political Economy, Vol. 7, Nov. Fall 1976, pp. 22- 39 or in a longer version in The Journal of African Studies Vol. V, No. 4 Winter 1978, pp.  444-470

19. Goran Hyden, Beyond Ujama

20. Goran Hyden, No Short Cuts to Progress

2.  (Second Week) PROBLEMS ARISING FROM DEPENDENCY:
Reading:
1. G.F. Erb & B. Kallab (Ed.), Beyond Dependency, read essays by Parmar, Pena, Vaitsos, Erb &
 Uhaq

2. P. Todaro (Ed.), The Struggle for Economic Development Part 3

References:
1. Baran, P., The Political Economy of Growth, Ch. 6,7

2. Carl Widstrand (Ed.), Multinational Firms in African, pp. 30-58, pp. 325-425

3. Pearson, S., Petroleum in Nigeria

4. L. Goncharov, "Urgent Problems of African Economic Development," The Journal of  Modern African Studies, VI., 4, 1968, pp. 475-483

5. Seidman, A., "Multinational Corporations and Economic Independence in Africa" in African  Social Research, 19 June 1975

6. Seidman, A., South Africa and US Multinational Corporations

7. Sunkel, O., "Transnational Capitalism and National Disintegration in latin America" in  Social & Economic Studies 22, 1, March 1973, pp. 132-176

8. Sauvant and Lavipour, Controlling Multinational Enterprises

9. A. Yansane, "The International Bauxite Association and its Search for Equity from  Multinational Corporations"

3.  (Third Week)  POLITICAL ECONOMY OF INTEGRATION:
References:
1. Green, H. & Seidman, A., Unity or Poverty? The Economics of Pan-Africanism, pp. 132-190,  263-282, 343-352

2. Yansane, A., "The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)" in The Review  of Plack Political Economy, Vol 7, No. 3, Spring 1977, pp. 215-237.  See a longer version in  The African Studies Review, Vol. xx, No. 3 Sept. 1977

3. Dell Sidney, Trade Blocs and Common Market, Ch. 5, pp. 284-93

4. H. Hazlewood, Economic Integration, The East African Experience

5. A. Yansane, Decolonization in West African States of French Colonial Legacy, Ch. 6

4.  (Fourth Week)  INDUSTRIALIZATION
Reading:
1. Bill Warren "Imperialism and Capitalism Industrialization" in New Left Review, No. 81,  Sept - Oct. 1973

2. Jose J. Villamil (Ed.), Transnational Capitalism and National Development

3. P. Todaro (Ed.), The Struggle for Economic Development: Part 3

Reference:
1. Tetteh Kofi, "Peasant and Agrarian Economic Development; Lessons for Africa," in A.Y.  Yansane (Ed.), Decolonization

2. Clive Thomas, "The Non-Capitalist Path as Theory and Practice of Decolonization and  Socialist Transformation," in A.Y. Yansane (Ed.), Decolonization

3. Hunter, G., Modernizing Peasant Societies

4. Uri, p., Development Without Dependence

5. Erb. G. & V. Kallab, Dependence Beyond

6. Clive Thomas, Dependence & Transformation

7. Nyerere, J., "The Arusha Declaration" in Ujama Essay on Socialism, pp. 13-38

8. Stvenhagen, R., "Seven Fallacies about Latin America" in James Petros and Maurice Zeitlin  (Ed.), Latin America: Reform or Revolution

9. Cliffe & Saul (Ed.), Socialism in Tanzania

10. Yansane, A., "Monetary Independence and Transition to Socialism in Guinea", Journal of  African Studies, Vol. 6, No. 3, Fall 1979

11. Yansane, A. "Evaluation of Socialist Experiments in African States of French Colonial legacy"  in Nigerian Journal of Social and Economic Studies, Vol. XVIII, No. 3, November 1978

12. I. Turner, Multinational Companies and the Third World

13. M. Merhave, Technological Dependence Monopoly and Growth

14. A.E. Eqing "Self Reliance in Africa" in The Journal of Modern African Studies, VI, 3, 1968,  pp. 361-72

15. K.M. Barbour, "Industrialization in West Africa - The Need for Sub-Regional Grooupings  within an Integrated Economic Community" in The Journal of Modern African Studies, X,  3, 1972, pp. 357-382

II.  THEORY OF DEVELOPMENT
Reading:   (One of following)
1. Charles K. Wilber (Ed.), The Political Economy of Development and Underdevelopment
or
2. Amiya Kumar Bachi, The Political Economy of Underdevelopment
or
3. Albert O. Hirshman, Essays in Trespassing Economics to Politics and Beyond
or
4. Michael Todaro (Ed.), The Struggle for Economic Development
or
5.  A.Y. Yansane, Decolonization and Dependency: Problems of Development of African  Societies, Westport, Connecticut and London, England: Greenwood Press, 1980.
or
 A.Y. Yansane, Decolonization of West African States of French Colonial Legacy, Comparison  and Contrast: Development on Guinea, The Ivory Coast and Senegal, Cambridge:  Schenkman Publication, Copy. 1989.
or
6.  McCalla, Agricultural Policies in World Markets, New York: McMillan, 1985.
or
 Albert Hirschman, Essays in Trespassing: Economists, Politics and Beyond, Cambridge:  Cambridge U.P. 1984.
or
 Alain de Janvry, The Agrarian Question in Latin America, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins  U.P., 1981.
or
 Joel S. Migdal, Peasants, Politics & Revolution, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1986
or
 The World Bank, South East Asian Miracle, Washington: The World Bank, 1993.
or
 Simon Commander, Structural Adjustment and Agriculture in Africa and Latin America,   Portsmouth, MH: Heinmann, 1989.
or
7.  Gerald Meier (Ed.) Leading Issues in Economic Development, N.Y.: Oxford U. Press, 1995.
or
 Warren Baum and Stokes Tolbert, Investing in Development: Lessons of World Bank  Experience: Oxford U.Press, 1984.
or
 Hamza Alavi and Teodore Shanin (Ed.) Introduction to the Sociology of Developing  Societies, N.Y., & London: Monthly Review Press, 1982.
or
8.  The South Commission, The Challenge to the South, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1990.
or
 The South Centre, Facing the Challenge, London & New Jersey: Zed Books, 1993.
or
 International Commission on Peace & Equity, Uncommon Opportunities, Zed Books, 1994
or
 Lester R. Brown et al., The State of the World, New York: WW Norton & Company, 1995
 

1.  (Fifth Week)  GENERAL CONCEPT:
References:
1. Wilson, George, Classics of Economic Theory

2. New Nations, The Problem of Political Development in The Annals, Vol. 358, March 1965

3. I. Horowitz, "An Introduction to the Third World" in I. Horowitz, Three Worlds of  Development

4. R. Jordan and J.P. Renninger, "The New Environment of Nation Building," The Journal of  Modern African Studies, XIII 2, 1975, pp. 187-207

5. D. Seers, "The Meaning of Development in Uphoff and Ilchman," The Political Economy of  Development

6. Christian P. Potholm, "Political Development: An overview" in Christian P. Potholm, Four  African Political Systems, pp. 34-61

7. I. Horowitz, Three Worlds of Development (general)

8. P. Baran, "On the Political Economy of Backwardness" in A.N. Agarwala & S.P. Singh, The  Economics of Underdevelopment, pp. 75-92; also in R.I. Rhodes, Imperialism and  Underdevelopment, pp. 285-301

9. C.P. Kindleberger, Economic Development, Ch. 1

10. G. Gurley, "The New Man in the New Maoist China" in Center Magazine, Vol. III, No. 3,  May 7

11. Ismail Sabu Abdalla, "What Development? A Third World Viewpoint" in Development, Vol.  22, No. 2-3, 1980

12. O.G. Reynolds, Image and Reality on Economic Development, Ch. 1,2

13. P. Todaro (Ed.), The Struggle for Economic Development, Part 1

14. Donald Cruise O'Brien, "Modernization, Order and the Erosion of a Democratic Ideal" in  Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 8

2.  (Sixth Week) MODELS:
Reference:
1. A.W. Lewis, "Economic Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labor" The Manchester  School, Vol. 22, pp. 139-91; also in A.N. Agarwala & S.P. Singh, The Economics of  Underdevelopment, pp. 401-446

2. Hla Myint, "The Classical Theory of International Trade and Underdeveloped Countries" in  Economic Journal, 1958, p. 317 et al

3. Hla Myint, The Economics of Developing Countries, Ch. 1-5, 7-10

4. P.N. Rosenstein - Rodan, "Problems of Industrialization of Eastern and Southern Europe" in  Economic Journal, June-Sept. 1943 also in Agarwals and Singh, The Economics of  Underdevelopment

5. A.G. Frank, "The Development of Underdevelopment" in R.I. Rhodes (Ed.), Imperialism and  Underdevelopment, pp. 4-17

3.  (Seventh Week)  STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS AND POPULATION QUESTION:

Reference:
1. N.T. Uphoff & W.F. Ilchman, The Political Economy of Development
 Part I: "The New Political Economy"
 Part II: "Development in the Perspective of Political Economy"
 Part III: "Problems of Political Development"

2. William Rich, Smaller Families Through Social and Economic Progress

3. Ansley J. Coale and Edgar M. Hoover, Population Growth and Economic Development in  Low Income Countries: A Case Study of India's Prospects

4. Bruce Johnston and Soren T. Nielsen, "Agricultural and Structural Transformation in a  Developing Economy," Food Research Institute Papers, No. 1-66, pp. 279-287

5. Simon Kuznets, "Population Change and Aggregate Output" in National Bureau of  Economic Research, N.Y., Demographic and Economic Change in kDeveloping Countries,  pp. 324-351

6. John Cownie "Agriculture, Domestic Manufacturing and Structural Transformation:   Assessing Economic Development: in The African Studies Review Vol. XVII, no. 1, April  1974, pp. 123-133.

7. I. A. Svanidze "The African Struggle for Agricultural Productivity" in The Journal of Modern  African Studies, VI, 3, 1968) pp. 311-28.

8. Ian Livingtone, "Agriculture vs. Industry in Economic Development," in The Journal of  Modern African Studies, VI, 3, (1968) pp. 329-41.

9. Ann Seidman, "Key Variables to Incorporate in a Model for Development: The African Case"  in The African Studies Review, Vol. xvii, no. 1, April 1974, pp. 105-21.

 III.  THE THIRD WORLD IN GLOBAL CONTEXT
A.  Reading:
 Gerald M. Meier (Ed.), Leading Issues in Economic Development (Sixth Edition),
 New York: Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.
 

1. (8th week) THE CHALLENGE OF DEVELOPMENT
 
 I.A. WHAT IS ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT? - NOTE
 
 I.B. MEASURES  OF DEVELOPMENT
 
 I.C. HOW HAVE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES PERFORMED?
 
 I.D. LEADING ISSUES--NOTE

2. THINKING ABOUT DEVELOPMENT
 
 II.A. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES
 
 II.B. ANALYTICAL PERSPECTIVES
  II.B.1. Evolution of Development Economics - Note
 
 II.C. ALTERNATIVE PERSPECTIVES
 
3. DUALISTIC DEVELOPMENT
 
 III.A. THE LABOR SURPLUS ECONOMY
 
 III.B. INTERSECTORAL ANALYSIS
 
 III.C.  MIGRATION AND URBANIZATION
 
 III.D. THE LEWIS MODEL IN RETROSPECT - NOTE
 
4. (9th week) DOMESTIC FINANCING OF  DEVELOPMENT

 IV.A. INVESTMENT REQUIREMENTS - NOTE
 
 IV.B. SOURCES OF CAPITAL FORMATION--NOTE
 
 IV.C. INFLATIONARY FINANCE AND ITS EFFECTS
 
 IV.D. NONINFLATIONARY FINANCE
 
 IV. E. FINANCIAL MARKETS AND DEVELOPMENT
 
 

5. EXTERNAL FINANCING OF DEVELOPMENT
 
 V.A. RESOURCE GAP AND FOREIGN-EXCHANGE GAP - NOTE
 
 V.B. PUBLIC FINANCIAL AID

 V.C. EXTERNAL FINANCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT - NOTE
 
 V.D. EXTERNAL DEBT
 
 V.E. PRIVATE FOREIGN INVESTMENT
 
6. (10th week) HUMAN RESOURCES

 VI.A. DEVELOPMENT AS A GENERALIZED PROCESS OF CAPITAL ACCUMULATION -              JOHNSON

 VI.B. THE SUPPLY OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP - LEIBENSTEIN
 
 VI.C. POPULATION
 
 VI.D. GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT

 VI.E. NUTRITION AND HEALTH

 VI.F. EDUCATION
  1. Economic Impact of Education - Psacharopoulos
 
7. INDUSTRILIZATION AND AGRICULTURE: 1

 VII.A. STRUCTURAL TRANSFORMATION
 
 VII.B. PROMOTING INDUSTRILIZATION
 
 VII.C. TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESS
 
 VII.D. PRIVATIZATION

 VII.E. AGRICULTURE - INDUSTRY INTERACTIONS

8. (11th week) INDUSTRILIZATION AND AGRICULTURE: 2

 VIII.A. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE
 
 VIII.B. MICROECONOMICS OF THE RURAL SECTOR
 
 VIII.C. DESIGNING AN AGRICULTURAL STRATEGY
 
 
 
 

9. TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT

 IX.A. GAINS FROM TRADE VERSUS GAINS FROM GROWTH
 
 IX.B. TRADE STRATEGY
 
 IX.C. TRADE IN PRIMARY PRODUCTS
 
10. MARKETS, GOVERNMENT, AND POLICY

 X.A. POLICY PRESCRIPTIONS

 X.B. MARKET FORCES AND DEVELOPMENT
 
 X.C. GOVERNMENT INTERVENTIONS
 
 X.D. POLITICAL ECONOMY OF GOVERNMENT FAILURE
 
 X.E. IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF POLICY MAKING - NOTE

OR ...
 B.  Warren C. Baum & Stokes M. Tolbert, Investing in Development: Lessons of World Bank  Experience, Oxford University Press, 1985.
1. Introduction

 PART I: NATIONAL INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT
2. Development Planning
3. Pricing Policy
4. Public Investment programs and Budgets
 
 PART II: SECTOR ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT
5. Sector Analysis
6. Agriculture
7. Education
8. Energy
9. Industry
10. Population, Health, and Nutrition
11. Transport
12. Urbanization
13. Water and Sanitation

 PART III: THE PROJECT CYCLE
14. Introduction
15. Project Identification
16. Project Preparation
17. Project Implementation
18. Ex Post Evaluation

 PART IV: PROJECT ANALYSIS
19. Technical Analysis
20. Economic Analysis
21. Financial Analysis
22. Social Analysis
23. Institutional Analysis
24. Environmental Analysis
25. Procurement
26. Use of Consultants

 PART V: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
27. Highlights of Experience

REFERENCES:
1. Terence K. Hopkins, Immanuel Wallerstein and Associates, World Systems Analysis Theory  & Methodology, Vol. 1, Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1982.

2. Immanuel Wallerstein, The Capitalist World Economy, Cambridge: Cambridge University  Press.
OR
C. Reading:
 Hamza Alavi and Theodore Shanin (Ed.), Introduction to the Sociology of Developing  societies, Monthly Review Press, 1982

1.  (Eighth Week)  THE MAKING OF THE THIRD WORLD

1. "Imperialism:  A Historical Survey" by Harry Magdoff

2. "The Rise and Future Demise of the World Capitalist System:  Concepts of Comparative  Analysis" by Immanuel Wallerstein
 
3. "The Origins of Capitalist Development:  A critique of Neo-Smithian Marxism" by Robert  Brenner

4. "Colonialism in the Words of Its Contemporaries" by Cecil Rhodes, Jules Harmand, Albert  Beveridge, Joseph Conrad, James Connolly

5. "The Losers" by Eric Hobsbawn

6. "Colonialism's Last Days:  An Orderly Decolonization in Malawi" in The Times, (London)

7. "White-Settler Colonialism and the Myth of Investment Imperialism" by Arghiri Emmanuel

2.  (Ninth Week)  THE GLOBAL CONTEXT

1. "Pathways of Social Development:  A Brief Against Suprahistorical Theory" by Karl Marx

2. "Dependency and Development in Latin America" by Fernando Henrique Cardoso

3. "The Multinational Corporation and the Law of Uneven Development" by Stephen Hymer

4. "Developing Societies as Part of an International Political Economy" by Michael Barrat  Brown

5. "The Structure of Peripheral Capitalism" by Hamza Alavi

3.  (Ninth Week)  POLITICAL ECONOMY

1. "A Morphology of Backwardness" by Paul A. Baran

2. "The Disarticulation of Economy Within "Developing Societies" by Samir Amin

3. "Center, Periphery and the Crisis of the System" by Paul M. Sweezy

4. "Industrialization, Development, and Dependence" by Henry Bernstein

5. "Poverty in the Third World:  Ugly Facts and Fancy Models" by Keith Griffin and Azizur  Rahman Khan

6. "The Political Ideology of Population Control" by Lars Bondestam

7. "The Dimension of Environment" by Malcolm Caldwell

8. "Class Formation as an "Articulation" Process: East African Casses" by Lionel Cliffe

9. "Workers in Developing Societies" by Robin Cohen

4.  (Tenth Week)  STATE AND REVOLUTION

1. "State and Class Under Peripheral Capitalism" by Hanza Alavi

2. "Class State and Revolution:  Substitutes and Realities" by Theodore Shanin

3. "Samuel Huntington and the End of Classical Modernization Theory" by Colin Leyes

4. "The Death of Salvador Allende" by Gabriel Garcia Marquez

5.  (Tenth Week)  COMMUNITY, CULTURE AND IDEOLOGY

1. "The New Metropolis" by Raymond Williams

2. "Cities in Developing Societies" by Bryan Roberts

3. "Family Structure and the Division of Labor: Female Roles in Urban Ghana" by Francis Pine

4. "Culture of Dependency:  Arts and Political Ethos" by Octavio Paz

5. "Learning to Be...What?  Shaping Education in "Developing Societies" by Roger Dale

6. "Reflections and Refractions on the Flow of Information" by Anthony Smith

7. "Nationalism and Development" by Tom Nairn

8. "Ideology and Identity:  An Approach from History" by Basil Davidson
 
 
 

IV. ALTERNATIVE STRAGEGIES: NORTH-SOUTH COOPERATION

Required Reading:   (one of the following books)
1. Javed Ansari, The Political Economy of International Organization

2. Bela Belassa et al, Toward Renewed Economic Growth in Latin America

3. The Brandt Commission, 1983, Common Crisis North-South: Cooperation for World  Recovery.

4. Fields, Poverty, Inequality and Development.

5. R.E. Feinberg F & V. Kallab, Adjustment Crisis in the Third World, New Brunswick:  Transaction Books, 1984.

6. Teresa Hayter, The Creation of World Poverty

7.  The South Commission, The Challenge to the South, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1990.
or
 The South Centre, Facing the Challenge, London & New Jersey: Zed Books, 1993.
or
 International Commission on Peace & Equity, Uncommon Opportunities, Zed Books, 1994
or
 Lester R. Brown et al., The State of the World, New York: WW Norton & Company, 1995

1. (Week 11)  THE WORLD ECONOMY AND INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

2. (Week 12)  FOREIGN AID, TRADE & THE NEGOTIATING PROCESS; POSSIBILITIES &                   PROSPECTS

3. (Week 13)  GLOBAL CRISIS OF THE YEAR 2000:  FOOD, ENERGY, POVERTY, DEBT CRISIS

V. CONCLUSIONS

References:
1. Michael P. Todaro, Economic Development in the Third World: Part  IV, Ch. 15,16,17.

2. Bruce Herrick and Charles Kindelberger, Economic Development  part 4,
 Ch. 20,2l,22,23,24.

3. Gerald M. Meier, Leading Issues in Economic Development 6th ed.,  Ch. 3., 5th & 6th  editions

4. Gerald M. Meier and Dudley Seers, (Ed.), Pioneers in Development  1984.

5. The World Bank, Accelerated Development in Subsaharan Africa: An Agenda for Action  (1981).

6. The World Bank, Towards Sustained Development in Subsaharan Africa, (1984)

7. OAU-ECA, The LAGOS PLAN (1980)

8. Robert S. Browne and Robert J. Cummings, The LAGOS Plan of Action vs. The Berg Report  (1983)
9. Peter Timmer, Falcon and Pearson, Food Policy Analysis

10. Hughes, Prospects for Partnership
11. Paul Streeten and Associates, First Things First

12. Bela Balassa, Development Strategies in Semi-Industrial Economics

13. Taylor-Bacha, Cardoso and Lysy, Models of Growth and distribution  for Brazil

14. World Bank, World Development Report, 1980-1995

15. Ismail Serageldin, Development Partners: Aid and Cooperation in the 1990’s, Swedish  International Development Authority, 1993

VII. OUTLINE OF GRADUATE PAPERS

 Selection of a hypothesis in the field of economic, political, and business development (for graduate students).  Formulate it in an operational way and state the alternative hypotheses that purport to explain the phenomena.  State the implications of the hypotheses.  Design and present data whereby the hypothesis could be tested.  (You do not have to do the calculations or conduct significance tests;  only describe the method you would follow, present your data and state your reasons for expecting that the test would be a good one).  Please discuss with the instructor the paper that you propose to write no later than the end of the third week of class.  The paper will account for 50% of the final grade, with the two brief exams and class participation making the balance.

 IV.  TEXTS FOR BACKGROUND READINGS

 1ST SET OF BOOKS:

1. Thomas Callaghy and John Ravenhill (Eds.)
 Hemmed In: Responses to Africa's Economic Decline
 New York: Columbia University Press, 1993 (573 pp, $18.50)

2. J. Ann Tickner
 Gender in International Relations: Feminist Perspectives on Achieving Global Security
 New York: Columbia University Press (180 pp, $14.50)

3. Karen Litfin
 Ozone Discours: Science & Politics in Global Environmental Cooperation
 New York: Columbia University Press (257pp, $45.00)

4. Ronnie D. Lipschutz & Ken Gonca (Eds)
 The State and Social Power in Global Environmental Politics
 New York: Columbia University Press, 1993 (363pp, $7.50)

5. The International Commission on Peace and Food (ICPF)
 Uncommon Opportunities: An Agenda for Peace and Equitable Development
 London: Zed Books, 1994 ($19.95)

6. Leslie St. Clair
 Assembling for Development
 London: Unwin Hyman In, 1993

7. John Walton & David Seddon
 Free Markets and Food Riots
 Blackwell Publishing, 1994
 
 Kim Moody & Mary McGinn
 Union and Free Trade
 Detroit: A Labor Notes Book, 1992

8. Robert B. Reich
 The Work of Nations
 New York: Vintage Books: a division of Random House, 1991

9. Martin Carnoy, Castelles, When and Cardoso
 The New Global Economy in the Information Age
 Pensylvania State University Press, 1993

10. Peter Dicken
 Global Shift: The Internationalization of Economic Activity
 New York: The Guilford Press, 1992

11. John Cavanagh et. al.
 Trading Freedom: How Free Trade Affect our Lives, Work and Environment
 San Francisco: The Institute of Food & Development Policy,  1992

12. Ricardo Grinspun and Maxwell Cameron
 The Political Economy of North AMerican Free Trade
 New York: St. Martin Press, 1993 ($19.95)

13. Raymond Vernon and Debra Spar
 Beyond Globalism: Remaking American Foreign Economic Policy
 London: The Free Press, MacCullan, 1989 ($29.95)

14. Gabriel Seekely
 Manufacturing Across Borders and Oceans, Japan, The United States, Mexico
 San Diego: UC Center for US Mexican Studies, 1991

15. Renato Rosaldo
 Culture and Truth
 Boston: Beacon Press, 1989
 
16. June Nash
 We Eat the Mines, the Mines Eat Us: Dependency and Exploration in Bolivian Tin Mines
 New York: Columbia University Press, 1993 ($18.50)

17. Jeremy Brecher & Tim Costello
 Economic Reconstruction from the Bottom Up or Global Pillage
 Boston: South End Press, 1994

18. Ralph Nader et al.
 The Case Against Free Trade, GATT, NAFTA and the Globalization of Corporate Power
 San Francisco and Berkeley: An Earth Island Press Book, 1993

19. Nora Lustig et al. (Ed)
 North American Free Trade Agreement
 Washington DC: Brookings Institution, 1992

20. Garry Clyde Hufbauer & Jeffrey J. Scott
 North America Free Trade: Issues and Recommendations
 Washington DC: Institure for International Economics, 1991

21. Frederique Apffel-Marglin & Stephen Marglin (Eds)
 Decolonizing Knowledge: From Development to Dialogue
 New York: Oxford University Press, 1994 (384 pp, $49.95)

22. E. Philip Davis
 Dept, Financial Fragility and Systematic Risk
 New York: Oxford University Press, 1994 (528 pp, $24.00)
 
 Mark Casson
 Enterprise and Competitiveness: A Systems View of International Business
 New York: Oxford University Press, 1994 (246 pp)

23. Jonathan Michie & James Grieve Smith (Eds)
 Managing the Global Economy
 New York: Oxford University Press, 1994 (300 pp, $24.00)

24. Igor Chernyshev (Ed)
 Labour Statistics for a Market Economy: Challenges and Solutions in the Transition  Countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union
 New York: Oxford University Press, 1994 (320 pp)

25. Sarab Ahmad Khan
 Nigeria: The Political Economy of Oil
 New York: Oxford University Press, 1994 (250pp, $49.95)

26. William Easterly, Carlos A. Rodriguez & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel (Eds)
 Public Sector Deficits and Macro-economic Performance
 New York: Oxford University Press, 1994 (570 pp, $49.95)
 (World Bank Publication)

27. Ahmed Galal, Leroy Jones, Pankay Tandom & Ongo Vogelsang
 Welfare Consequences of Selling Public Enterprises: an Emperical Analysis
 New York: Oxford University Press, 1994 (632 pp, $49.95)
 (World Bank Publication)

28. World Bank
 Averting the Old Age Crisis: Policies to Protect the Old and Promote Growth
 New York: Oxford University Press, 1994 (432 pp, $19.95)

29. Anwar Mishah (Ed)
 Fiscal Incentives for Investment and Innovation
 New York: Oxford University Press, 1994 (570 pp, $49.95)
 (World Bank Publication)

30. Stephen Haggard & Steven B. Webb (Eds)
 Voting for Reform: Democracy, Political Liberalization, and Economic Adjustment
 New York: Oxford University Press, 1994 (536 pp, $19.99)

31. Rakesh Mohan
 Understanding the Developing Metropolis: Lessons from the City Study of Bogota and Cali,  Colombia
 New York: Oxford University Press, 1994 (344 pp, $32,95)
 (World Bank Publication)

32. Nicholas Barr (Ed)
 Labor Market and Social Policy in Central & Eastern Europe: The Transition and Beyond
 New York: Oxford University Press (406 pp, $19.95)

33. Ernesto M. Pernia (Ed)
 Urban Poverty in Asia: A survey of Critical Issues
 New York: Oxford University Press, 1994 (300 pp, $49.95)

34. David C. Cole, Hal S. Scott & Philip A. Wellon
 Asian Money Markets
 New York: Oxford University Press, 1994 (496 pp, $65.00)
 
 

35. B. Yung NakSong
 The Rise of the Korean Economy  (Updated Edition)
 New York: Oxford University Press, 1994  (296pp, $8.95)

36. Asian Development Bank
 Key Indicators of Developing Asian and Pacific Countries, Vol. XXV, 1994
 New York: Oxford University Press, 1994 (400 pp, $19.95)

37. M. G. Quibrid (Ed)
 Critical Issues in Asian Development: Theories, Experiences and Policies
 New York: Oxford University Press, 1994 (261 pp, $45.00)

38. Claude Alvare
 Science Development and Violence: The Revolt Against Modernity
 New York: Oxford University Press, 1994 (198 pp, $7.95)

39. John P. Lewis
 Governance and Reform: India's Political Economy
 New York: Oxford University Press, 1994 (416 pp, $35.00)

40. Vijay Josh and I.M.D. Little
 India: Macro-economics and Political Economy 1964-1991
 New York: Oxford University Press, 1995 (416 pp, $22.00)

41.  Kartik C. Roy & Cal M. Clark (Eds)
 Technological Change and Rural Development in Poor Countries
 New York: Oxford University Press, 1994 (192 pp, $16.95)

42. Thomas B. Gold
 State and Society in the Taiwan Miracle
 New York: M. E. Sharpe Inc., 1986

43. Gustavo Gutierrez
 A Theology of Liberation: History, Politics and Salvation
 Orbis, 1988

 2ND SET OF BOOKS:

1. Paul Davidson (Ed)
 Can The Free Market Pick Winners?
 Armonk, New York & London: M. E. SHarpe, 1993

2. Alan V. Deardoeff & Robert M. Stern (Eds)
 Analytical and Negotiating Issues in the Global Trading System
 Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1994

3. Paul R. Fergusson and Glenys J. Fergusson
 Industrial Economics Issues and Perspectives
 Second Edition
 Houndmills: MacMillan, 1994
 

4. Randall C. Henning, Edward Hochreitter and Gary Clyde Hufbauer
 Reviewing the European Union
 Washington: Institure of International Economics and the Austrian National Bank, 1994

5. Gary Clyde Hufbauer & Kimberley Ann Elliott
 Measuring the Costs of Protection in the United States
 Washington DC: Institure of International Economics, 1994

6. Katoshi Ito Taka & Anne O. Kreuger
 Macro-economic Linkage, Savings, Exchange Rates and Capital Flows
 Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994

7. Micho Moushima
 Capital & Credit: A New Formulation of General Equlibrium  Theory
 Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993

8. David J. Richardson
 Sizing Up US Export Disincentives
 Washington: Institute of International Economics, 1993

9. Alan M. Rugman & Alain Verkeke (Eds)
 Research in Global Strategic Management, Vol. 4
 Greenwich, CT, Hampton Hill: JAE Press LTD, 1993

10. Richard Lewis
 Employment and Human Rights: The International Dimension
 Philadelphia: University of Pensylvania Press, 1994

11. Deborah Spar
 The Internal Politics of International Cartels: The Cooperative Edge
 New York: Cornell University Press, 1994

12. Rick Tilman (Ed)
 A Veblen Treasury: From Leisure Class to War, Peace and Capitalism
 Armonk, New York and London: M. E. Sharpe, 1993

13. Philip K. Verleger, Jr.
 Adjusting to Volatile Energy Prices
 Washington DC: Institute of International Economics, 1993

14. Kenneth A. Afroot (Ed)
 Foreign Direct Investment
 Chicago, London: University of Chicago Press, 1993

15. Jeffrey A. Frantal & Miles Kahler (Eds)
 Regionalism and Rivalry: Japan and the United States in Pacific Asia
 Chicago, London: niveristy of Chicago Press, 1993

16. Jan Willem Gunning, Henk Kose, Wouter Tims and Ynto De Wit (Eds)
 Trade, Aid and Development
 Basingstoke, New York: The MacMillan Press, 1994

17. C. H. Kwan
 Economic Interdependence in the Asia Pacific Region
 Bassingstoke, New York: The MacMillan Press, 1994
 
 Patricia M. Maichark
 The Integrated Circus, the New Right and the Restructuring of Global Market
 Montreal, London: The McGill-Queen's University Press, 1993

18. Pradeep K. Mitia
 Adjustment in Oil Importing Developing Countries: A Comparative Economic Analysis
 Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994

19. Gusbert Van Liemt (Ed)
 Industry on the Move: Causes & Consequences of International Relocation in the  Manufacturing
 Geneva: International Labor Office, 1994

20. Adrian Wood
 North-South Trade Employment and Inequality: Changing Fortunes  in a still Driven World
 Oxford, New York: Clarendon Press, 1994

21. Nassau A. Adams
 Worlds Apart: The North-South Divide and the International System
 London, Atlantic Hignlands, NJ: Zed Books, 1993

22. John Holland
 International Financial Management
 Oxford, Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1993

23. Gary Clyde Hufbauer and Jeffrey J. Schott
 NAFTA: An Assessment Revised Edition
 Washington DC: Institute for International Economics, 1993

24. Beverly Crawford
 Economic Vulnerability in International Relations, East-West  Trade, Investment & Finance
 New York, Chichester: Columbia University Press, 1994

25. Jose A. Gomez-Ibanez & John R. Meyer
 Giving Private, The International Experience with Transport  Privatization
 Washington DC: The Brookings Institution, 1993

26. Gote Hansson (Ed)
 Trade, Growth and Development, The Role of Politics and Institutions
 London, New York: Routledge, 1993

27. Geoffrey M. Hodgson
 Economics and Evolution, Bunging Life Back into Economics
 Cambridge: Policy Press (Blackwells), 1993

28. Martin Carnoy, Manuel Castells, Stephen S. Cohen and Fernando Henrigue Candoso
 The New Global Economy in the Information Age: Reflections on Our Changing World
 Philadelphia, London: MacMillan Press (The Pensylvania University Press, 1993
29. Stephen Castles & Mark J. Miller
 The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World
 Basingstoke: MacMillan Press, 1993

30. Howard Cox, Jeremy Clegg & Grazia Letto-Gillies (Ed)
 The Growth of Global Business
 London, New York: Routledge, 1993

31. Colin Crouch & David Marguand (Eds)
 Ethics and Markets: Cooperation & Competition within Capitalist Economies
 Oxford, Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1993

32. John H. Dunning
 The Globalization of Business
 London, New York: Routledge, 1993
 
 Arnold Heertie (Ed)
 World Savings: An International Survey
 Oxford, Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1993

33. Vittorio Corbo, Stanley Fisher and Steoen Webb (Eds)
 Adjustment Lending Revisited: Policies to Restore Growth
 Washington DC: The World Bank, 1993

34. Anne D. Kruegl
 Economic Policies at Cross Purposes: The United States and Developing Countries
 Washington DC: The Brookings Institution, 1993

35. Michael Tracy
 Food and Agriculture in a Market Economy: An Introduction to Theory and Practice
 Tonbridge: Combined Book Services LTD, 1992

36. Keith Hoggart (Ed)
 Agricultural change, Environment and Economy
 London, New York: Mansell, 1992

37. United Nations
 World Investment Report, 1992: Transnational Corporations as Eugiues of Growth
 New York: United Nations, 1992

38. Nora Lustig, Barry P. Bosworth & Robert L. Lawrence (Eds)
 The North American Free Trade Agreement: Assessing the Impact
 Washington DC: The Brookings Institution, 1992

39. Jed Mansoob Munshed
 Economic Aspects of North-South Interaction
 London, San Diego: Academic Press, 1992

40. Vitorio Corbo & Sang-Mok Suh (Eds)
 Structural Adjustment in a Newly Industrialized Country: The Korean Experience
 Baltimore, London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992

41. John Cornwall
 Economic Breakdown & Recovery: Theory and Policy
 Armonk, New York & London: M. E. Sharpe, 1994

42. David W. Pearce and Jeremy J. Warford
 World Without End: Economics, Environment and Sustainable Development
 Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 1993
 
43. David E. Sahin (Ed)
 Adjusting to Policy Failure in African Economics
 New York: Cornell University Press, 1994

 THIRD SET OF BOOKS:

1. Robert Ackwill
 Information Sources on the Common Agriculture Policy
 Manchester: European Information Association, 1994

2. Robert Z. Aliber
 The Multinational Paradigm
 Cambridge, MA, London: The MIT Press, 1993

3. Pedro Aspe
 Economic Transformation, The Mecixan Way
 Cambridge, MA, London: The MIT Press, 1993

4. Richard E. Baldwin
 Towards an Integrated Europe
 London: Center for Economic Policy Research, 1994

5. Oliver Blanchard, Maxim Boyco, Mark Dabrowik, Rudiger Dornbusch, Richard Layard &  Andrei Shleifer
 Post Communism Reform, Pain & Progress
 Cambridge, MA, London: The MIT Press, 1993

6. Barry P. Bosworth, Rudiger Dornbusch & Raul Laban (Eds)
 The Chilean Economy: Policy Lessons and Challenges
 Washington DC: Brookings Institution, 1994

7. Roman Frydman & Andrzej Rapaczynski
 Privatization in Eastern Europe: Is the State Withering Away?
 Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 1994

8. Greenaway & L. Alan Winters (Eds)
 Surveys in International Trade
 Oxford and Cambridge USA: Blackwell Publishers, 1994

9. Paul C. Hallwood & Ronald MacDonald
 International Money and Finance
 Oxford and Cambridge USA: Blackwell Publishers, 1994
 

10. Dean M. Hanink
 The International Economy: Geographical Perspective
 New York: John Wiley and Sons Ltd., 1994

11. Hong Wontack
 Trade and Growth: A Korean Perspective
 Seoul: Kudara International, 1994

12. Husnu Kizel Yalli
 Economics of Transition: A New Aethodology for Transforming a Socialist Economy to  Market Economy, A Review of Market Reforms of the Countries in Transition and Prospects,  and a Critique of the Current Macroeconomic Theories
 Istanbul: Bogarici University, 1994

13. Nicholas R. Lardy
 China in the World Economy
 Washington DC: Institute of International Economics, 1994

14. Philip L. Martin
 Trade and Migration: NAFTA and Agriculture
 Washington DC: Institute of International Economics, 1993

15. Percy & Mistry
 Multilateral Debt: An Emerging Crisis?
 The Hague: FONDAD, 1994

16. Horst Siebert (Ed)
 Overcoming the Transformation Crisis: Lessons for the Successor States of the Soviet Union
 Tubingen: JCB. Mohr, 1993

17. Cho Soon
 The Dynamics of Korean Economic Development
 Washington DC: Institure of International Economics, 1994

18. Peter G. Warr
 The Thai Economy in Transition
 Cambridge, New York: Cambrudge University Press, 1994

19. Mark Williams
 International Economic Organizations and the Third World
 London, New York: Havester Wheatsheaf, 1994

20. Harold Alderman and Manito Garcia
 Poverty, Household Food Security and Nutrition in Rural Pakistan: Research Report 96
 Washington DC: International Food Policy Research Institure, 1993

21. D.C. Almond, R. Abu Eid and J. Alsulaimi
 Industrial Raw Materials of the Arabian Gulf and their Utilization
 London, New York: Kegan Paul International, 1994
 
 

22. Branko Bokun
 Bioeconomy, Matriarchy in Post Capitalism
 London: Vita Brooks, 1994

23. Juan Eduardo Coeymans and Yair Mundlak
 Sectorial Growth in Chile 1962-82: Research Report 95
 Washington D.C.: International Food Policy Institute, 1993

24. Ryoshin Minami
 The Economic Development of China
 Basingstoke, New York: The MacMillan Press, 1994

25. Jeffry Sacks
 Poland’s Jump to the Market Economy
 Cambridge MA, London: The MIT Press, 1993

26. Ajit Dasgupta
 History of Indian Economic Thought
 London, New York: Routledge, 1993

27. Steve H. Hanke, Lars Jonung and Kurt Schuller
 Russian Currency and Finance: A Currency Board Approach to Reform
 London, New York: Routledge 1993

28. Dayanatha Jha and Behjat Hojjati
 Fertilizer Use on Smallholder Farms in Eastern Province, Zambia
 Calcutta, London: Sangam Books (Ouent Longman LTD), 1993

29. Nicholas R. Landy
 Foreign Trade and Economic Reform in China, 1978-1990
 Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993

30. Neill Nugent
 The European Community 1992: Annual Review of Activities
 Oxford, Cambridge MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1993

31. Balwanth Reddy
 Imperatives of Planned Economic Development
 Calcutta, London: Sangan Books (Ouent Longman LTD), 1993

32. Dominick Salvatore (Ed.)
 Protectionism and World Welfare
 Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993

33. Kamila Suri
 India’s Economy, Balance of Payments: The Current Crisis
 New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House PUT LTD (Sangam Books), 1993

34. United Nations
 Small and Medium-sized Transnational Corporations: Role, Impact, Policy Implications
 New York: united Nations, 1993

35. Ippei Yamawaza and Aicira Hir
 Trade Policies Towards Developing Countries
 Basingstoke: MacMillan Press, 1993

36. Henry K. Kierzkowski, Manek Okolski and Stanislaw Wellisz (Eds.)
 Stabilization and structural Adjustment in Poland
 London, New York: Routledge, 1993

37. Edward J. Lincoln
 Japan’s New Global Role
 Washington: Brookings Books, 1993
 
 Battara Simatupang
 The Polish Economic Crisis, Background, Causes and Aftermath
 London, New York: Routledge 1993

38. Jun Wownoff
 The Japanese Economic Crisis
 Basingstoke: MacMillan, 1992

39. Mohamed Ariff
 The Malaysian Economy
 Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 1991
 

VI.  RESERVED LIBRARY READINGS

1. Jose J. Villamil (Ed.) Transnational Capitalism and National Development.

2. Willy Brandt Commission, North-South.

3. N.Y. Uphoff & W.F. Ilchman, The Political Economy of Development.

4. C.W.P. Gutkind & P. Waterman, African Social Studies, A Radical Reader.

5. C.W.P. Gutkind & I. Wallerstein, The Political Economy of Contemporary Africa.

6. G. Hunter, Modernizing Peasant Societies, Africa and Asia.

7. G. Beckford, Persistent Poverty, Underdevelopment in Plantation Economies in the Third  World.

8. K.P. Sauvant and F.G. Lavipour, Controlling Multinational Enterprises.

9. P. Uri, Development Without Dependence.

10. G. & B. & V. Kallab (Ed.), Beyond Dependency and The Developing World Speaks Out.

11. C. Thomas, Dependence and Transformation and The Economics of the Transition to Socialism.

12. G. Hunter, Modernizing Peasant Societies: A Comparitive Study in Asia and Africa.
13. J. Bhagwati (Ed.), Economics and World Order.

14. P. Jalee, The Third World in World Economy.

15. S. Amin, Neo-colonialism in West Africa.

16. J. Rweymamu, Underdevelopment and Industrialization: Perverse Development.

17. Carl Widstrand (Ed.), Multinational Firms in Africa.

18. Walter Rodney, How Europe Underdeveloped in Africa.

19. Robert Rhodes, Imperialism and Underdevelopment.

20. Novack, D. & E. Lekachman (Ed.), Development and Society: The Dynamics of Economic Change.

21. Charles K. Wilber (Ed.), Economics of Underdevelopment.

22. Amitai Etzioni-Halevy (Ed.), Social Change: Sources, Patterns and Consequences.

23. Michael P. Todaro (Ed.), The Struggle for Economic Development: Readings in Problems  and Policies, (1983) Longman.

24. Michael P. Todaro, Economic Development in the Third World (1985) Longman.

25. Bruce Herrick and Charles P. Kindleberger, Economic Development (1983) McGraw Hill.

26. Gerald M. Meier (Ed.), Leading Issues in Economic Development (Fourth Edition) (1984) Oxford University Press.

27. Wayne Nafziger, The Economics of Developing Countries, (Wadworth Publishing  Company), 1984.

28. Gerald M. Meier and Dudley Seers (Ed.), Pioneers in Development, A World Baur Publication (1984) Oxford University Press.

29. Paul E. Sigmund, The Ideologies of the Developing Nations, (1969) Praeger.

30. S.N. Eisenstadt, Modernization: Protest and Change (1966).

31. Wilbert Moore, Social Change, (1963), Prentice Hall.

32. Gabriel A. Almond and G. Bingham Powell, Jr., Comparative Politics, A Developmental Approach, (1966) Little Brown &  Co.

33. Colin Legun (Ed.), Africa in the 1980's.

34. Cohen and Daniel (Ed.), Political Economy.

35. Joel Barkan with John J. Okumu (Ed.), Politics and Public Policy in Kenya and Tanzania.

36. Helen Kitchen, Africa: from Mystery to Maze.

37. Ann and Neva Seidman, South Africa: U.S. Multinationals.

38. Report of the Study Commission on U.S. Policy Toward South Africa, South Africa: Time  Running Out (1981)