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Brief Description

Auto-typer and Pen

The piece is envisioned as residing in a traditional painting format—that is, it is approximatly 18×24 and framed in an ornate wooden frame. The painting itself is simply a flat sheet of gyricon paper, mounted. Unpowered, the work is static. Yet when connected to a source of electricity (e.g. a wall plug) it comes to life: behind the painting is a magnetic dot-matrix print head that sweeps the plane of the paper in path that generates tracks of words resulting in stochastic sunusoidal reticulations. The words that it prints are visible on the opposite (front) side of the paper due to the penetrating nature of the magnetic field (which in turn causes the paper to change color). The source of the text has not yet been determined.

Furthermore, there are present magnetic markers which enable the viewer to make marks upon the surface of the work. Since the marks are simply color changes in the gyricon matrix, the print head will eventually efface them.

Links

Links to relevant sites.

Patents

(Dates herin are those of filing.) Notice that almost all of these patents are assigned to Xerox or to E Ink/MIT.

Relevant Patents

Patents claimed by Gyricon Media, Inc.

4,126,854
Twisting ball panel display (Sheridon/Xerox), 1976
4,143,103
Method of making a twisting ball panel display (Sheridon/Xerox), 1976
5,389,945
Writing system including paper-like digitally addressed media and addressing device therefor (Sheridon/Xerox), 1993
5,604,027
Some uses of microencapsulation for electric paper (Sheridon/Xerox), 1995
5,754,332
Monolayer gyricon display (Crowley/Xerox), 1996
5,917,646
Rotatable lens transmissive twisting ball display (Sheridon/Xerox), 1996
5,922,268
Method of manufacturing a twisting cylinder display using multiple chromatic values (Sheridon/Xerox), 1997
5,930,026
Nonemissive displays and piezoelectric power supplies therefor (Jacobson/MIT), 1998

Other Patents

6,221,267
Methods for making spinnable ball, display medium and display device (Ilkeda, Yagi, Kishi/Canon), 1998
6,222,513
Charge retention islands for electric paper and applications thereof (Howard/Xerox), 1998
6,211,998
Magnetic unlatching and addressing of a gyricon display (Sheridon/Xerox), 1998
6,197,228
Method of making a gyricon display using magnetic latching (Sheridon/Xerox), 1998
6,110,538
Method of making a gyricon display using magnetic latching (Sheridon/Xerox), 1998
6,147,791
Gyricon displays utilizing rotating elements and magnetic latching (Sheridon/Xerox), 1998
6,174,153
Apparatus for making uniformly magnetized elements for a gyricon display (Sheridon/Xerox), 1998
6,137,467
Optically sensitive electric paper (Sheridon, Richley/Xerox), 1995
6,124,851
Electronic book with multiple page displays (Jacobson/E Ink), 1995
6,120,839
Electro-osmotic displays and materials for making the same (Comiskey, Jacobson/E Ink), 1998
6,120,588
Electronically addressable microencapsulated ink and display thereof (Jacobson/E Ink) 1997
6,097,531
Method of making uniformly magnetized elements for a gyricon display (Sheridon/Xerox), 1998
6,072,621
Colored ball display system (Kishi, Yagi, Ilkeda/Canon), 1999
6,067,185
Process for creating an encapsulated electrophoretic display (Albert, Comiskey/E Ink), 1998
6,055,091
Twisting-cylinder display (Sheridon, Crowley/Xerox), 1996
6,054,071
Poled electrets for gyricon-based electric-paper displays (Mikkelsen/Xerox), 1998
6,017,584
Multi-color electrophoretic displays and materials for making the same (Albert, Comiskey, Jacobson, Zhang, Loxley, Feeney, Drzaic, Morrison/E Ink), 1998
5,989,629
Bichromal spheres (Sacripante, Mikkelsen/Xerox), 1998
5,982,346
Fabrication of a twisting ball display having two or more different kinds of balls (Sheridon, Mackinlay, Stone/Xerox), 1995
5,976,428
Method and apparatus for controlling formation of two-color balls for a twisting ball display (Richley/Xerox)
5,961,804
Microencapsulated electrophoretic display (Jacobson, Comiskey, Albert/MIT), 1997
5,930,026
Nonemissive displays and piezoelectric power supplies therefor (Jacobson, Comiskey/MIT), 1996
5,922,268
Method of manufacturing a twisting cylinder display using multiple chromatic values (Sheridon/Xerox), 1997
5,917,646
Rotatable lens transmissive twisting ball display (Sheridon/Xerox), 1996
5,914,805
Gyricon display with interstitially packed particles (Crowley/Xerox), 1996
5,904,790
Method of manufacturing a twisting cylinder display using multiple chromatic values (Sheridon/Xerox), 1997
5,900,192
Method and apparatus for fabricating very small two-color balls for a twisting ball display (Richley/Xerox), 1998
5,894,367
Twisting cylinder display using multiple chromatic values (Sheridon/Xerox), 1997
5,892,497
Additive color transmissive twisting ball display (Robertson/Xerox), 1995
5,825,529
Gyricon display with no elastomer substrate (Crowley/Xerox)
5,815,306
Eggcrate substrate for a twisting ball display (Sheridon, Romano, Mikkelsen, Richley, Crowley/Xerox), 1996
5,808,783
High reflectance gyricon display (Crowley/Xerox), 1996
5,777,782
Auxiliary optics for a twisting ball display (Sheridon/Xerox), 1996
5,767,826
Subtractive color twisting ball display (Sheridon, Robertson/Xerox), 1995
5,760,761
Highlight color twisting ball display (Sheridon/Xerox), 1995
5,757,345
Electrocapillary color display sheet (Sheridon/Xerox), 1996
5,754,332
Monolayer gyricon display (Crowley/Xerox), 1996
5,751,268
Pseudo-four color twisting ball display (Sheridon/Xerox), 1995
5,739,801
Multithreshold addressing of a twisting ball display (Sheridon/Xerox), 1995
5,737,115
Additive color tristate light valve twisting ball display (Mackinlay, Stone/Xerox), 1995
5,731,792
Electrocapillary color display sheet (Sheridon/Xerox), 1996
5,659,330
Electrocapillary color display sheet (Sheridon/Xerox), 1996
5,717,515
Canted electric fields for addressing a twisting ball display (Sheridon/Xerox), 1995
5,717,514
Polychromal segmented balls for a twisting ball display (Sheridon/Xerox), 1995
5,708,525
Applications of a transmissive twisting ball display (Sheridon/Xerox), 1995
5,389,945
Writing system including paper-like digitally addressed media and addressing device therefor (Sheridon/Xerox), 1993
5,344,594
Method for the fabrication of multicolored balls for a twisting ball display (Sheridon/Xerox), 1992

Not directly applicable, but otherwise relevant patents:

6,177,921
Printable electrode structures for displays (Comiskey/E Ink)
6,014,247
Electronic ink dimming mirror (Winter/Lear Automotive), 1998
5,986,629
Electrostatic discharge indicator (Smith, Lupien/Xerox), 1996
5,724,064
Computing system with an interactive display (Stefik, Levy, Casey/Xerox), 1995

Other Literature

In no particular order.

  1. N.K Sheridon, et al., The Gyricon—A Twisting Ball Display, Proceedings of the Society for Information Display, vol. 18, Nos. 3 and 4, Third and Fourth Quarters, pp. 289–293 (1977).
  2. M. Saitoh, et al., A Newly Developed Electrical Twisting Ball Display, Proceedings of the Society for Information Display, vol 23, No. 4 (1982).
  3. Sankus, Electrophoretic Display Cell, Xerox Disclosure Journal, May/Jun. 1979, vol. 4, No. 3, (p. 309).
  4. Platt, Digital Ink, Wired, May 1997, (pp. 162, 165, 208–210).
  5. Ackerman, E Ink of Cambridge Gets Start-Up Funding, Dec. 1997.
  6. Ballinger, Magnetic Recording Paper is Erasable, Electronics, Mar. 1973, (pp. 73–76).
  7. Beilin et al., 8.5: 2000-Character Electrophoretic Display, SID 86 Digest, 1986, (pp. 136–140).
  8. Blazo, 10.1/9:00 A.M.: High Resolution Electrophoretic Display with Photoconductor Addressing, SID 82 Digest, 1982, (pp. 92–93).
  9. Bryce, Seeing Through Synthetic Metals, Nature, Sep. 1988, vol. 335, No. 1, (pp. 12–13).
  10. Chiang, Conduction Mechanism of Charge Control Agents Used in Electrophretic Display Devices, Proceeding of the S.I.D., 1977, vol. 18, Nos. 3 & 4, (pp. 275–282).
  11. Chiang et al., 11.5/4:10 P.M.: A High Speed Electrophoretic Matrix Display, SID 80 Digest, 1980, (pp. 114–115).
  12. Comiskey et al., 7.4L: Late-News Paper: Electrophoretic Ink: A Printable Display Material, SID 97 Digest, 1997, (pp. 75–76).
  13. Croucher et al., Electrophoretic Display: Materials as Related to Performance, Photographic Science and Engineering, Mar./Apr. 1981, vol. 25, No. 2, (pp. 80–86).
  14. Dalisa, Electrophoretic Display Technology, Transactions on Electron Devices, Jul. 1977, vol. 24, No. 7, (pp. 827–834).
  15. Egashira et al., A Solid Electrochromic Cell Consisting of LU-Diphthalocyanine and Lead Fluoride, Proceedings of the SID, 1987, vol. 28, No. 3, (pp. 227–232).
  16. Fitzhenry, Optical Effects of Adsorption of Dyes on Pigment Used in Electrophoretic Image Displays, Applied Optics, Oct. 1979, vol. 18, No. 19, (pp. 3332–3337).
  17. Fitzhenry, Optical Properties of Electrophoretic Image Displays, Proceedings of the SID, 1981, vol. 22, No. 4, (pp. 300–309).
  18. Goodman, Passive Liquid Displays: Liquid Crystals, Electrophoretics, and Electrochromics, Proceeding of the SID, 1976, vol. 17, No. 1, (pp. 30–38).
  19. Gutcho, Additional Uses of Encapsulated Products, Microencapsules and Microencapsulation Techniques, (pp. 278–343) date unknown.
  20. Howe, MIT Book Would Bind Computer Ink to Paper, Boston Globe, 1996, (pp. 31 & 35).
  21. Ji et al., P-50: Polymer Walls in Higher-Polymer-Content Bistable Reflective Cholesteric Displays, SID 96 Digest, (pp. 611–613).
  22. Lewis, Gravitational, Inter-Particle and Particle-Electrode Forces in the Electrophoretic Display, Proceeding of the SID, 1977, vol. 18, Nos. 3 & 4 (pp. 235–242).
  23. Murau et al., The Understanding and Elimination of Some Suspension Instabilities in an Electrophoretic Display, J. Appl. Phys., Sep. 1978, vol. 49, No. 9 (pp. 4820–4829).
  24. Murau et al., 7.6/4:40 P.M.: An Electrophoretic Radiographic Device, SID 79 Digest, 1979, (pp. 46–47).
  25. Ota et al., Developments in Electrophoretic Displays, Proceedings of the SID, 1977, vol. 18, Nos. 3 & 4, (pp. 243–254).
  26. Ota et al., Electrophoretic Image Display (EPIO) Panel, Proceedings of the IEEE, Jul. 1973, (pp. 832–836).
  27. Pankove, Color Reflection Type Display Panel, RCA Technical Notes, Mar. 1962, No. 535, (2 sheets).
  28. Shiffman et al., An Electrophoretic Image Display with Internal NMOS Address Logic and Display Drivers, Proceedings of the SID, 1984, vol. 25, No. 2, (pp. 105–115).
  29. Shiwa et al., 5.6: Electrophoretic Display Method Using Ionographic Technology, SID 88 Digest, 1988, (pp. 61–62).
  30. Singer et al., An X-Y Addressable Electrophoretic Display, Proceeding of the SID, 1977, vol. 18, Nos. 3 & 4, (pp. 255–266).
  31. Electronic Book is a Whole Library, Sunday Times Newspaper, Feb. 1996.
  32. Vance, Optical Characteristics of Electrophoretic Displays, Proceeding of the SID, 1977, vol. 18, Nos. 3 & 4, (pp.267–274).
  33. Yamaguchi et al., Equivalent Circuit of Ion Projection-Driven Electrophoretic Display, IEICE Transactions, 1991, vol. 74, No. 12, (4152–4156).
  34. Yang et al., A New Architecture for Polymer Transistors, Nature, Nov. 1994, vol. 372, (pp. 344–346).
  35. Zollinger, Structures of Simple Di- and Triarylmethine Dyes, Color Chemistry, 1991, (p. 71–75).
  36. Wilmsen, Electronic Ink' Sign Debuts at JCPenney, Boston Globe, May 1999.
  37. Flaherty, What Did Disappearing Ink Grow Up to Be? Electronic Ink, The New York Times, May 1999.
  38. Negroponte et al., Surfaces and Displays, Wired, Jan. 1997, (p. 212).
  39. Comiskey et al., An Electrophoretic Ink for All-Printed Reflective Electronic Displays, Nature, Jul. 1998, vol. 394, (pp. 253–255).
  40. Zurer, Digital Ink Brings Electronic Books Closer, Chemical, Jul. 1998, (pp. 12–13).
  41. Peterson, Rethinking Ink Printing the Pages of an Electronic Book, Science News, Jun. 1998, vol., 153, (pp. 396–397).
  42. Guernsey, Beyond Neon: Electronic Ink, New York Times, Jun. 1999 (p. B11).
  43. White, An Electrophoretic Bar Graph Display, Proceedings of the SID, 1981, 22(3):173–180.
  44. Pansu et al. (1984), Structures of Thin Layers of Hard Spheres: High Pressure Limit, J. Physique, 45:331–339.
  45. Peiranski et al. (1983), Thin Colloidal Crystals, Physical Review Letters, 50(12):900–903.
  46. Pansu et al. (1983), Thin Colloidal Crystals: A Series of Structural Transitions, J. Physique, 44:531–536.
  47. Van Winkle et al. (1986), Layering Transitions in Colloidal Crystals as Observed by Diffraction and Direct-Lattice Imaging, Physical Review, 34:562–573.
  48. Saitoh et al. (1982), A Newly Developed Electrical Twisting Ball Display, Proceeding of the SID, 23(4): 249–253.
  49. Vaz et al. (1989), Dual Frequency Addressing of Polymer-Dispersed Liquid-Crystal Films, J. Appl. Phys., 65(12): 5043–5050.
  50. Lee (1977), Fabrication Magnetic Particles Display, Proceeding of the SID, 18(3&4): 283–288.
  51. Bohnke et al. (1991), Polymer-Based Solid Electrochromic Cell for Matrix-Addressable Display Devices, J. Electrochem. Soc., 138(12): 3612–3617.
  52. Jin et al. (1992), Optically Transparent, Electrically Conductive Composite Medium, Science, 446–448.
  53. Hatano et al. (1996), Bistable Paper-White Display Device Using Cholesteric Liquid Crystals, SID 96 Digest, 269–272.
  54. Ota et al., Electrophoretic Display Devices, Laser 75 Optoelectronics Conference Proceedings, 145–148.
  55. Microencapsulation with Synthetic Polymeric Film Formers, Microcapsules and Microencapsulation Techniques, 65–130.
  56. Pearlstein, Electroless Plating, in Modern Electroplating, Lowenheim, ed., 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, pp. 710–747.
  57. Capsule Wall Treatment, Microcapsules and Microencapsulation Techniques, 156–177.
  58. Pigments and Paints, Microcapsules and Microencapsulation Techniques, 178–193.

Miscellaneous HERF bits

A HERF gun is mostly an apocryphal gadget-melter.