Gregory A. Antipa

Contact Information

Department of Biology
San Francisco State University
129 Hensill Hall
San Francisco CA 94132 
Phone Number: (415) 338-2951
FAX Number: (415) 338-2295 

Courses Education Research Interests Publications Memberships


Biology 175 - Cells, Microbes, and Life
Biology 391 - Microscopy & Photomicrography 
Biology 450 - Biology of the Protozoa 
Biology 451 - Protozoology Laboratory
Biology 740 - Cell Ultrastructure Seminar
Biology 741 - Electron Microscopy


1970. Ph.D. in Zoology at the Univ. of Illinois - Urbana/Champaign
1966. M.A. in Biology at San Francisco State University
1963. A.B. in Zoology at the University of California - Berkeley

Research Interests

cell biology, ciliate development, electron microscopy

My laboratory concentrates on basic problems which can be best approached with the use of protozoa as either model systems or pragmatic solutions to fundamental problems in biology. They center around: 1) issues of general ecology, 2) cellular development, and 3) structure/function relationships. With respect to the latter, inasmuch as the protozoa are both cells and organisms, the emphasis has been on just what cellular adaptations have been made to accomplish life as a unicellular eukaryote. In the case of development, my laboratory has paid special attention to the role of basal bodies and centrioles in their regulation & semiautonomy during growth and cellular division. Insofar as ecology is concerned, the program of division is applied to the estimate of the growth of these organisms, the behavior of ciliated protozoa as they respond to chemical environmental cues, and finally an evaluation of the role protozoa play in the decomposition of organic wastes, particularly during the activated sludge process. The activities of my laboratory have been funded by grants from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Department of Energy (DOE), and the Office of Water Resource Research (OWRR).


Antipa, G. A. and Chang, E. 2003. Morphogenesis in Conchophthirus curtus: the structural events associated with thigmotactic field formation.
Antipa, G. A. and Li, B. 1987 Chemotaxis of naive Paramecium to bacterial signals produced by Escherichia coli. J. Protozool. 34:3A.
Antipa, G. A. and Martin, K. 1980. Chemotaxis in the ciliated protozoa. Amer. Zool. 20:798.
Antipa, G. A. and Norton, J. 1984. Chemoreception by Paramecium of bacterial signals produced by Escherichia coli in a strictly defined minimal medium. J. Protozool. 31:13A.
Antipa, G. A., Li, B., and Norton, J. 2004. Nuances of chemotaxis in bacterial-raised and axenic-raised Paramecium (manuscript(s) in preparation).
Antipa, G. A., Martin, K. and Rintz, M. T. 1983. A note on the possible ecological significance of chemotaxis in certain ciliated protozoa. J.Protozool. 30:55-57.
Chang, E. and Antipa, G. A. 1996. Morphogenesis in the ciliate Conchophthirus: formation of the thigmotactic field. J. Microsc. Technique, 29:449.
Salehi-Ashtiani, K. S. and Antipa, G. A. 1997. Ultrastructural variability in the somatic cortex of the ciliated protozoa, Mytilophilus pacificae. J. Euk Microbiol. 44:471-479.
Approx. 50 other publications represent work carried out with my students and colleagues.


American Society for Cell Biology
Bay Area Biosystematists
Microscopy Society of America
Northern California Society for Microscopy
San Francisco Microscopical Society
International Society of Protistologists

Last modified on: Tues 20 Jan 09:38:01 PDT 2008